Emergency Resuscitative Thoracotomy for Civilian Thoracic Trauma in the Field and Emergency Department Settings: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

2022 ◽  
Vol 273 ◽  
pp. 44-55
Amy Liu ◽  
Jackie Nguyen ◽  
Haley Ehrlich ◽  
Charles Bisbee ◽  
Luis Santiesteban ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 25 (10) ◽  
pp. 1086-1097 ◽  
Nicholas Karlow ◽  
Charles H. Schlaepfer ◽  
Carolyn R. T. Stoll ◽  
Michelle Doering ◽  
Christopher R. Carpenter ◽  

CJEM ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 21 (S1) ◽  
pp. S98-S99
C. O'Rielly ◽  
L. Sutherland ◽  
C. Wong

Introduction: Patients with chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) and opioid-use disorders make up a category of patients who present a challenge to emergency department (ED) providers and healthcare administrators. Their conditions predispose them to frequent ED utilization. This problem has been compounded by a worsening opioid epidemic that has rendered clinicians apprehensive about how they approach pain care. A systematic review has not yet been performed to inform the management of CNCP patients in the ED. As such, the purpose of this project was to identify and describe the effectiveness of interventions to reduce ED visits for high-utilizers with CNCP. Methods: Included participants were high-utilizers presenting with CNCP. All study designs were eligible for inclusion if they examined an intervention aimed at reducing ED utilization. The outcomes of interest were the number of ED visits as well as the amount and type of opioids prescribed in the ED and after discharge. We searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and the grey literature from inception to June 16, 2018. Two independent investigators assessed articles for inclusion following PRISMA guidelines. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane ROBINS-I and RoB 2 tools for non-randomized and randomized trials, respectively. Results: Following review, 14 of the 5,018 identified articles were included for analysis. These articles assessed a total of 1,670 patients from both urban and rural settings. Interventions included pain protocols or policies (n = 5), individualized care plans (n = 5), ED care coordination (n = 2), a chronic pain management pathway (n = 1), and a behavioural health intervention (n = 1). Intervention effects trended towards the reduction of both ED visits and opioid prescriptions. The meta-analysis is in progress. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that interventions aimed at high-utilizers with CNCP can reduce ED visits and ED opioid prescription. ED opioid-restriction policies that sought to disincentivize drug-related ED visits were most successful, especially when accompanied by an electronic medical record (EMR) alert to ensure consistent application of the policy by all clinicians and administrators involved in the care of these patients. This review was limited by inconsistencies in the definition of ‘high-utilizer’ and by the lack of high-powered randomized studies.

2018 ◽  
Vol 25 (6) ◽  
pp. 684-698 ◽  
Charles Wong ◽  
Braden Teitge ◽  
Marshall Ross ◽  
Paul Young ◽  
Helen Lee Robertson ◽  

CJEM ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 20 (3) ◽  
pp. 343-352 ◽  
Kyle McGivery ◽  
Paul Atkinson ◽  
David Lewis ◽  
Luke Taylor ◽  
Tim Harris ◽  

AbstractObjectivesDyspnea is a common presenting problem that creates a diagnostic challenge for physicians in the emergency department (ED). While the differential diagnosis is broad, acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is a frequent cause that can be challenging to differentiate from other etiologies. Recent studies have suggested a potential diagnostic role for emergency lung ultrasound (US). The objective of this systematic review was to assess the accuracy of early bedside lung US in patients presenting to the ED with dyspnea.MethodsA systematic search of EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library was performed in addition to a grey literature search. We selected prospective studies that reported on the sensitivity and specificity of B-lines from early lung ultrasound in dyspneic patients presenting to the ED. Selected studies underwent quality assessment using the Critical Appraisal and Skills Program (CASP) questionnaire.Data Extraction and SynthesisThe search yielded 3674 articles; seven studies met inclusion criteria and fulfilled CASP requirements for a total of 1861 patients. Summary statistics from the meta-analysis showed that as a diagnostic test for ADHF, bedside lung US had a pooled sensitivity of 82.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]=66.4% to 91.8%) and a pooled specificity of 83.6% (95% CI=72.4% to 90.8%).ConclusionsOur results suggest that in patients presenting to the ED with undifferentiated dyspnea, B-lines from early bedside lung US may be reliably used as an adjunct to current diagnostic methods. The incorporation of lung US may lead to more appropriate and timely diagnosis of patients with undifferentiated ADHF.

CJEM ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 20 (S1) ◽  
pp. S91-S91
J. McCallum ◽  
B. Ellis ◽  
I. G. Stiell

Introduction: There is a significant gap between the number of organ donors and people awaiting an organ transplant; therefore it is essential that all potential donors are identified. Given the nature of Emergency Medicine it is a potential source of organ donors. The purpose of this study is to determine what percent of successful donors come from the Emergency Department (ED) and whether there are any missed potential donors. Methods: Electronic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CINAHL were performed July 7, 2017 using PRISMA guidelines. Primary literature in human adults were included if they described identification of patients in the ED who went on to become successful solid organ donors, or described missed potential donors in the ED. Data on the total population of actual or missed donors was required to allow calculation of a percentage. Studies describing non-solid organ donation, consent, ethics, survey of attitudes, teaching curricula, procurement techniques, donation outside the ED, and recipient factors were excluded. 2 authors independently screened articles for inclusion and discrepancies were resolved through consensus. Quality was assessed using STROBE for observational studies. Heterogeneity of patient populations precluded pooling of the data to conduct a meta-analysis. Results: 1058 articles were identified, 17 duplicates were removed, 800 articles were excluded based on title and abstract, and 217 full text articles were excluded, yielding 24 articles for the systematic review. For neurologic determination of death (NDD), ED patients comprised 4 44% of successful donors. ED death reviews revealed 0 84% of patients dying in the ED are missed as potential donors and hospital-wide death reviews revealed 13 80.9% of missed donors die in the ED. For donation after cardiac death (DCD), 4 20% of successful donors came from the ED and studies investigating potential donors suggest 2 36% of patients dying the in the ED could be potential DCD donors. The most common population of successful DCD organ donors was in traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest (TCPA), with 3.6 8.9% of TCPA patients presenting to the ED becoming successful donors. Conclusion: Patients dying in the Emergency Department are a significant source of both successful organ donors and missed potential donors. Emergency physicians should be familiar with their local organ donation protocol to ensure potential organ donors are not missed.

2019 ◽  
Vol 36 (6) ◽  
pp. 355-363 ◽  
Blair Graham ◽  
Ruth Endacott ◽  
Jason E Smith ◽  
Jos M Latour

BackgroundPatient experience is positively associated with both clinical effectiveness and patient safety and should be a priority for emergency care providers. While both quantitative and qualitative approaches can be used to evaluate patient experience in the emergency department (ED), the latter is well aligned to develop a detailed understanding of features influencing the lived experience of ED patients. This study aimed to systematically review the literature of qualitative studies to identify determinants of adult patient experience in the ED.MethodsA Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis compliant systematic review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, BNI and bibliography searches to identify qualitative studies exploring patient experiences in ED published in English between 1997 and 2018. Quality assessment was conducted using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Descriptive text and quotations relating to patient experience were extracted from included studies and a meta-synthesis conducted using thematic analysis.ResultsA total of 625 records were screened from which 40 studies underwent full review and 22 were included. Results were coded by two researchers (BG and JML). Meta-synthesis identified 198 discrete units of analysis which were clustered around five analytical themes. These were based on the perceived ‘needs’ of patients visiting the ED and were defined as communication, emotional, competent care, physical/environmental and waiting needs. Findings were translated into a conceptual model for optimising patient experience in the ED.ConclusionThis meta-synthesis provides a framework for understanding the determinants of patient experience in the ED. The resulting conceptual model and recommendations may have the potential to directly inform practice and improve the patient experience.

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