diagnostic methods
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Author(s):  
Vladimir Mikhailovich Levin ◽  
Ammar Abdulazez Yahya ◽  
Diana A. Boyarova

Power transformers are one of the most important and complex parts of an electric power system. Maintenance is performed for this responsible part based on the technical condition of the transformer using a predictive approach. The technical condition of the power transformer can be diagnosed using a range of different diagnostic methods, for example, analysis of dissolved gases (DGA), partial discharge monitoring, vibration monitoring, and moisture monitoring. In this paper, the authors present a digital model for predicting the technical condition of a power transformer and determining the type of defect and its cause in the event of defect detection. The predictive digital model is developed using the programming environment in LabVIEW and is based on the fuzzy logic approach to the DGA method, interpreted by the key gas method and the Dornenburg ratio method. The developed digital model is verified on a set of 110 kV and 220 kV transformers of one of the sections of the distribution network and thermal power plant in the Russian Federation. The results obtained showed its high efficiency in predicting faults and the possibility of using it as an effective computing tool to facilitate the work of the operating personnel of power enterprises.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
N. Sharif ◽  
D. Ahmed ◽  
R. T. Mahmood ◽  
Z. Qasim ◽  
S. N. Khan ◽  
...  

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 951
Author(s):  
Kristina D. Yakovleva ◽  
Diana V. Dmitrenko ◽  
Iulia S. Panina ◽  
Anna A. Usoltseva ◽  
Kirill A. Gazenkampf ◽  
...  

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common forms of focal epilepsy in children and adults. TLE is characterized by variable onset and seizures. Moreover, this form of epilepsy is often resistant to pharmacotherapy. The search for new mechanisms for the development of TLE may provide us with a key to the development of new diagnostic methods and a personalized approach to the treatment. In recent years, the role of non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNA) has been actively studied, among which microRNA (miR) is of the greatest interest. (1) Background: The purpose of the systematic review is to analyze the studies carried out on the role of miRs in the development of mesial TLE (mTLE) and update the existing knowledge about the biomarkers of this disease. (2) Methods: The search for publications was carried out in the databases PubMed, Springer, Web of Science, Clinicalkeys, Scopus, OxfordPress, Cochrane. The search was carried out using keywords and combinations. We analyzed publications for 2016‒2021, including original studies in an animal model of TLE and with the participation of patients with TLE, thematic and systemic reviews, and Cochrane reviews. (3) Results: this thematic review showed that miR‒155, miR‒153, miR‒361‒5p, miR‒4668‒5p, miR‒8071, miR‒197‒5p, miR‒145, miR‒181, miR‒199a, miR‒1183, miR‒129‒2‒3p, miR‒143‒3p (upregulation), miR–134, miR‒0067835, and miR‒153 (downregulation) can be considered as biomarkers of mTLE. However, the roles of miR‒146a, miR‒142, miR‒106b, and miR‒223 are questionable and need further study. (4) Conclusion: In the future, it will be possible to consider previously studied miRs, which have high specificity and sensitivity in mTLE, as prognostic biomarkers (predictors) of the risk of developing this disease in patients with potentially epileptogenic structural damage to the mesial regions of the temporal lobe of the brain (congenital disorders of the neuronal migration and neurogenesis, brain injury, neuro-inflammation, tumor, impaired blood supply, neurodegeneration, etc.).


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 271-280
Author(s):  
A. Turukbaeva ◽  
N. Gilyauzizova

In this article, the author reveals research methods for working with underperforming students. We conducted an electronic survey (in connection with the pandemic) of students in urban schools and their parents, and each question was analyzed. As diagnostic methods for studying the state and causes of academic failure in modern schoolchildren, the author used various methods: the method of theoretical analysis of scientific, pedagogical, psychological, managerial and methodological literature on the research problem, the method of empirical research, the diagnostic method, the method of pedagogical experiment (ascertaining, forming, control and their description). The study of the reasons for academic failure was carried out in three stages, which differed both substantively and procedurally. The first stage was devoted to a questionnaire survey of students and parents of students in order to identify their interest and participation in general in the upbringing and academic performance of the child. At the second stage, the students' color world analyzer was used. And the final, third stage, contains the application of tests of school anxiety to diagnose the socio-psychological climate. The purpose of the methodology is to identify the level of anxiety in adolescents, localized in three main planes: educational activity, relationships with peers and significance in the eyes of adults and self-image. After all, adolescence is still an insufficiently mature and insufficiently socially matured person; it is a person who is at a special stage in the formation of its most important features and qualities. This stage is the borderline between childhood and adulthood.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Author(s):  
Mattia Tomasoni ◽  
Giuseppe Esposito ◽  
Davide Mugetti ◽  
Paolo Pastorino ◽  
Nadia Stoppani ◽  
...  

The genus Vibrio currently contains 147 recognized species widely distributed, including pathogens for aquatic organisms. Vibrio infections in elasmobranchs are poorly reported, often with identifications as Vibrio sp. and without detailed diagnostic insights. The purpose of this paper is the description of the isolation and identification process of Vibrio spp. following a mortality event of Scyliorhinus canicula juvenile reared in an Italian public aquarium. Following investigations aimed at excluding the presence of different pathogens of marine fish species (parasites, bacteria, Betanodavirus), several colonies were isolated and subjected to species identification using the available diagnostic techniques (a biochemical test, MALDI-TOF MS, and biomolecular analysis). Discrepancies were observed among the methods; the limits of biochemistry as a unique tool for Vibrio species determination were detected through statistical analysis. The use of the rpoB gene, as a diagnostic tool, allowed the identification of the isolates as V. crassostreae and V. cyclotrophicus. Although the pathogenic role of these microorganisms in lesser-spotted dogfish juveniles has not been demonstrated, and the presence of further pathogens cannot be excluded, this study allowed the isolation of two Vibrio species in less-studied aquatic organisms, highlighting the weaknesses and strengths of the different diagnostic methods applied.


Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 208
Author(s):  
Andrea Sanchini

Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections in humans, such as skin and soft tissue infections, pneumonia, food poisoning or sepsis. Historically, S. aureus was able to rapidly adapt to anti-staphylococcal antibiotics and become resistant to several classes of antibiotics. Today, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug-resistant pathogen and is one of the most common bacteria responsible for hospital-acquired infections and outbreaks, in community settings as well. The rapid and accurate diagnosis of antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus is crucial to the early initiation of directed antibiotic therapy and to improve clinical outcomes for patients. In this narrative review, I provide an overview of recent phenotypic and molecular diagnostic methods for antimicrobial resistance detection in S. aureus, with a particular focus on MRSA detection. I consider methods for resistance detection in both clinical samples and isolated S. aureus cultures, along with a brief discussion of the advantages and the challenges of implementing such methods in routine diagnostics.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 138-146
Author(s):  
Justyna Cabaj ◽  
Julia Bargieł ◽  
Izabela Chmielewska ◽  
Janusz Milanowski

Introduction Lung cancer has been the main oncological problem in the world for years. It is extremely important to use appropriate diagnostic methods that enable its detection and implementation of appropriate treatment. Aim The presented case shows the advantage of computed tomography over chest X-ray (X-ray) in visualizing neoplastic changes in the lungs. Case Study The paper presents a description of a patient diagnosed with centrally located advanced lung adenocarcinoma with a strong expression of PD-L1 qualified for treatment with pembrolizumab. Results and Discussion Presented case confirms that X-ray is less sensitive, especially in the case of centrally located tumors. Therefore, the emergence of a new cough in a smoker or ex-smoker should raise concerns related to lung cancer despite a normal X-ray image. The central location of the tumor may cause dramatic course of the symptoms. In the presented case, a sudden significant deterioration of the condition was observed due to atelectasis of the entire lung. Haemoptysis observed during hospitalization was another symptom of centraly located tumor mass. Conclusions In conclusion, the history of cigarette smoking, presence of typical symptoms should provide an in-depth diagnosis of lung cancer, despite normal X-ray. Diagnostic procedures include computed tomography in the first place. The course of centrally localized disease may change rapidly during on first cycle of treatment. Due to the possibility of serious complications of the ongoing neoplastic disease, the patient should be under constant medical supervision.


2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010136
Author(s):  
Meng-Tao Sun ◽  
Man-Man Gu ◽  
Jie-Ying Zhang ◽  
Qiu-Fu Yu ◽  
Poppy H. L. Lamberton ◽  
...  

Background As China is moving onto schistosomiasis elimination/eradication, diagnostic methods with both high sensitivity and specificity for Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans are urgently needed. Microscopic identification of eggs in stool is proven to have poor sensitivity in low endemic regions, and antibody tests are unable to distinguish between current and previous infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technologies for the detection of parasite DNA have been theoretically assumed to show high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. However, the reported performance of PCR for detecting S. japonicum infection varied greatly among studies. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall diagnostic performance of variable-temperature PCR technologies, based on stool or blood, for detecting S. japonicum infections in humans from endemic areas. Methods We searched literatures in eight electronic databases, published up to 20 January 2021. The heterogeneity and publication bias of included studies were assessed statistically. The risk of bias and applicability of each eligible study were assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool (QUADAS-2). The bivariate mixed-effects model was applied to obtain the summary estimates of diagnostic performance. The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve was applied to visually display the results. Subgroup analyses and multivariate regression were performed to explore the source of heterogeneity. This research was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered prospectively in PROSPERO (CRD42021233165). Results A total of 2791 papers were retrieved. After assessing for duplications and eligilibity a total of thirteen publications were retained for inclusion. These included eligible data from 4268 participants across sixteen studies. High heterogeneity existed among studies, but no publication bias was found. The pooled analyses of PCR data from all included studies resulted in a sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83 to 0.96), specificity of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94), positive likelihood ratio of 5.90 (95% CI: 2.40 to 14.60), negative likelihood ratio of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.20) and a diagnostics odds ratio of 58 (95% CI: 19 to 179). Case-control studies showed significantly better performances for PCR diagnostics than cross-sectional studies. This was further evidenced by multivariate analyses. The four types of PCR approaches identified (convention PCR, qPCR, Digital droplet PCR and nested PCR) differed significantly, with nested PCRs showing the best performance. Conclusions Variable-temperature PCR has a satisfactory performance for diagnosing S. japonicum infections in humans in endemic areas. More high quality studies on S. japonicum diagnostic techniques, especially in low endemic areas and for the detection of dual-sex and single-sex infections are required. These will likely need to optimise a nested PCR alongside a highly sensitive gene target. They will contribute to successfully monitoring endemic areas as they move towards the WHO 2030 targets, as well as ultimately helping areas to achieve these goals.


Author(s):  
María Fernanda Calderón Hernádez ◽  

Background: The main objective of this research is to learn the symptoms that occur in this pathology, since we are currently still fighting COVID-19, because of this, it is important to keep us informed about the different diagnostic methods available, which help us reach an earlier and more effective diagnosis. Various articles have been compiled to identify as soon as possible the active cases and thus reduce the number of infections. Materials and methods: This research was conducted on the basis of scientific articles and books, related to COVID-19. Methods: This research was conducted based on 15 scientific articles and 3 books, related to COVID-19. Results: The most important risk factors are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, age and sex. The most common symptoms in Latin America are dry cough, fatigue, sore throat, and fever. The preferred diagnostic test for COVID-19 is the polymerase chain reaction for its specificity and sensitivity Conclusions: As a conclusion, the main objective of the research was achieved, which is to inform the reader about the most relevant symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 in order to improve the identification of suspected cases. Furthermore, we compare various diagnostic methods that exist to date and determine that PCR is the most specific and sensitive.


Author(s):  
Aleksey Shilikov

The article introduces a sociological survey that featured the development of conflict management skills in municipal employees of the Belgorod region. The methods involved a questionnaire survey and a semi-structured interview of Belgorod municipal authorities, teaching staff of the Higher School of Management of the Belgorod State University, and employees of the Institute of Regional Personnel Policy of Belgorod. The reasons behind the conflicts were divided into those caused by the specifics of the municipal service, the peculiarities of team relations, and the individual characteristics of a municipal employee. The results of the study can improve the practical work of municipal personnel departments or be used in teaching sociological disciplines. Further study is required to develop diagnostic methods to identify the conflict management skills in municipal officials, collect information, define conditions and patterns of development, draft resolution procedures, etc.


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