grey literature
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Tingmin Wu ◽  
Wanlun Ma ◽  
Sheng Wen ◽  
Xin Xia ◽  
Cecile Paris ◽  

Computer users are generally faced with difficulties in making correct security decisions. While an increasingly fewer number of people are trying or willing to take formal security training, online sources including news, security blogs, and websites are continuously making security knowledge more accessible. Analysis of cybersecurity texts from this grey literature can provide insights into the trending topics and identify current security issues as well as how cyber attacks evolve over time. These in turn can support researchers and practitioners in predicting and preparing for these attacks. Comparing different sources may facilitate the learning process for normal users by creating the patterns of the security knowledge gained from different sources. Prior studies neither systematically analysed the wide range of digital sources nor provided any standardisation in analysing the trending topics from recent security texts. Moreover, existing topic modelling methods are not capable of identifying the cybersecurity concepts completely and the generated topics considerably overlap. To address this issue, we propose a semi-automated classification method to generate comprehensive security categories to analyse trending topics. We further compare the identified 16 security categories across different sources based on their popularity and impact. We have revealed several surprising findings as follows: (1) The impact reflected from cybersecurity texts strongly correlates with the monetary loss caused by cybercrimes, (2) security blogs have produced the context of cybersecurity most intensively, and (3) websites deliver security information without caring about timeliness much.

2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (8) ◽  
pp. 1-41
Rafael Belchior ◽  
André Vasconcelos ◽  
Sérgio Guerreiro ◽  
Miguel Correia

Blockchain interoperability is emerging as one of the crucial features of blockchain technology, but the knowledge necessary for achieving it is fragmented. This fact makes it challenging for academics and the industry to achieve interoperability among blockchains seamlessly. Given this new domain’s novelty and potential, we conduct a literature review on blockchain interoperability by collecting 284 papers and 120 grey literature documents, constituting a corpus of 404 documents. From those 404 documents, we systematically analyzed and discussed 102 documents, including peer-reviewed papers and grey literature. Our review classifies studies in three categories: Public Connectors, Blockchain of Blockchains, and Hybrid Connectors. Each category is further divided into sub-categories based on defined criteria. We classify 67 existing solutions in one sub-category using the Blockchain Interoperability Framework, providing a holistic overview of blockchain interoperability. Our findings show that blockchain interoperability has a much broader spectrum than cryptocurrencies and cross-chain asset transfers. Finally, this article discusses supporting technologies, standards, use cases, open challenges, and future research directions, paving the way for research in the area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Gloria Igihozo ◽  
Phaedra Henley ◽  
Arne Ruckert ◽  
Charles Karangwa ◽  
Richard Habimana ◽  

Abstract Background Over the past decade, 70% of new and re-emerging infectious disease outbreaks in East Africa have originated from the Congo Basin where Rwanda is located. To respond to these increasing risks of disastrous outbreaks, the government began integrating One Health (OH) into its infectious disease response systems in 2011 to strengthen its preparedness and contain outbreaks. The strong performance of Rwanda in responding to the on-going COVID-19 pandemic makes it an excellent example to understand how the structure and principles of OH were applied during this unprecedented situation. Methods A rapid environmental scan of published and grey literature was conducted between August and December 2020, to assess Rwanda’s OH structure and its response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 132 documents including official government documents, published research, newspaper articles, and policies were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Rwanda’s OH structure consists of multidisciplinary teams from sectors responsible for human, animal, and environmental health. The country has developed OH strategic plans and policies outlining its response to zoonotic infections, integrated OH into university curricula to develop a OH workforce, developed multidisciplinary rapid response teams, and created decentralized laboratories in the animal and human health sectors to strengthen surveillance. To address COVID-19, the country created a preparedness and response plan before its onset, and a multisectoral joint task force was set up to coordinate the response to the pandemic. By leveraging its OH structure, Rwanda was able to rapidly implement a OH-informed response to COVID-19. Conclusion Rwanda’s integration of OH into its response systems to infectious diseases and to COVID-19 demonstrates the importance of applying OH principles into the governance of infectious diseases at all levels. Rwanda exemplifies how preparedness and response to outbreaks and pandemics can be strengthened through multisectoral collaboration mechanisms. We do expect limitations in our findings due to the rapid nature of our environmental scan meant to inform the COVID-19 policy response and would encourage a full situational analysis of OH in Rwanda’s Coronavirus response.

2022 ◽  
Samantha H Cheng ◽  
Janine E. Robinson ◽  
Siri L.A. Öckerman ◽  
Neil A. Cox ◽  
Annette Olsson ◽  

Background: The international trade of wildlife (animals and plants) provides critical resources for human communities worldwide and contributes to local, national, and international economies. However, increasing demand presents a significant threat to both species and ecosystems as well as wildlife-centered livelihoods. Concerns regarding illicit trade of wildlife and unsustainable harvest has propelled international wildlife trade regulation to the top of political and conservation agendas. Consequently, a broad range of interventions have been established to regulate the trade and address biodiversity decline. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of international wildlife trade interventions, this protocol sets out the parameters for a systematic map which will comprehensively collate and describe the extent and distribution of the evidence base. The resulting map aims to provide insight to guide future research and inform practice. Methods: This systematic map will identify, map, and characterize the available evidence on the impacts of established policies and programs to address international wildlife trade. Specifically, the systematic map will describe: (1) the volume and distribution of studies that have examined impacts of various interventions on conservation, biological, and socioeconomic outcomes; (2) research methodologies that have been used to evaluate impacts; (3) distribution of studies on particular taxa and geographical areas; and (4) identify evidence gaps in need of more research. We will search two publication databases and several organizational and topical websites for relevant published articles and grey literature. In addition, a call for literature will be issued among relevant research networks. The titles, abstracts, and full texts of captured studies will be assessed against inclusion criteria. Double screening will be carried out on a subset of studies to ensure consistency. Relevant information from studies will be extracted using an a priori codebook. The resulting map will consist of descriptive statistics, a heat map in the form of a matrix, and a narrative synthesis describing characteristics of included studies.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261962
Pathmavathy Namasivayam ◽  
Dung T. Bui ◽  
Christine Low ◽  
Tony Barnett ◽  
Heather Bridgman ◽  

Introduction After-hours services are essential in ensuring patients with life limiting illness and their caregivers are supported to enable continuity of care. Telehealth is a valuable approach to meeting after-hours support needs of people living with life-limiting illness, their families, and caregivers in rural and remote communities. It is important to explore the provision of after-hours palliative care services using telehealth to understand the reach of these services in rural and remote Australia. A preliminary search of databases failed to reveal any scoping or systematic reviews of telehealth in after-hours palliative care services in rural or remote Australia. Aim To review and map the available evidence about the use of telehealth in providing after-hours palliative care services in Australian rural and remote communities. Methods The proposed scoping review will be conducted using the Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework and in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. The reporting of the scoping review will be guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). This review will consider research and evaluation of after-hours services using telehealth for palliative care stakeholders in rural and remote Australia. Peer reviewed studies and grey literature published in English from 2000 to May 2021 will be included. Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL Complete, Embase via Ovid, PsycINFO via Ovid, Emcare via Ovid, Medline via Ovid, and grey literature will be searched for relevant articles. Titles and abstracts will be screened by two independent reviewers for assessment against the inclusion criteria. Data will be extracted and analysed by two reviewers using an adapted data extraction tool and thematic analysis techniques. Diagrams, tables, and summary narratives will be used to map, summarise and thematically group the characteristics of palliative care telehealth services in rural and remote Australia, including stakeholders’ perceptions and benefits and challenges of the services.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 30
Ashley Costello ◽  
Cian Hehir ◽  
Drona Sharma ◽  
Eithne Hudson ◽  
Owen Doody ◽  

Introduction: Psychotropic medications are commonly prescribed among adults with intellectual disability (ID), often in the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis. As such, there is great disparity between the estimated prevalence of mental illness and the rates of psychotropic medication use amongst people with ID. ‘Off-label’ use of these medications may account for much of this discrepancy, in particular their use in the management of challenging behaviour. This has come under scrutiny due to the myriad of side effects and the deficiency of high-quality data supporting their use for this indication. Understanding the causes and justifications for such disparity is essential in discerning the efficacy of current prescription practice. Objective: To explore the existing evidence base regarding the prescription and management of psychotropic medications in adults with ID. The aim will be achieved through identifying the psychotropic medications commonly prescribed, the underlying rationale(s) for their prescription and the evidence available that demonstrates their appropriateness and effectiveness. Additionally, the paper will seek to evaluate the availability of any existing guidance that informs the management of these medications, and the evidence and outcomes of psychotropic medication dose reduction and/or cessation interventions. Inclusion criteria: This review will consider studies that focus on the use of psychotropic medications amongst patients with ID. Methods: Research studies (qualitative, quantitative and mixed design) and Grey Literature (English) will be included. The search will be conducted without time restrictions. Databases will include: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, JBI Evidence Synthesis, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Databased of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO and Scopus. A three-step search strategy will be followed, with results screened by two independent reviewers. Data will be extracted independently by two reviewers using a data extraction tool with results mapped and presented using a narrative form supported by tables and diagrams.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 239
Ayalew Kassahun ◽  
Robbin Bloo ◽  
Cagatay Catal ◽  
Alok Mishra

Nowadays, different types of farm management information systems (FMIS) are being used in practice in several sectors of farming, such as dairy, arable, fruits, vegetables, and meat farming. The goal of this research is to identify, evaluate, and synthesize existing FMISs in the Dutch dairy sector and present the state–of–the–art. We performed a multivocal literature review (MLR) to find sources both in scientific and grey literature. A grey literature search was adopted because most of the FMISs were not reported in the scientific literature. To support and improve the effectiveness of the MLR process, an online survey was first sent to Dutch dairy farmers to identify the FMISs that are being used in practice. With the help of the MLR process, we identified 50 FMISs used by Dutch dairy farmers. We identified 33 features of these FMISs and listed the advantages and disadvantages of the FMISs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Lenaïg G. Hemery ◽  
Kailan F. Mackereth ◽  
Levy G. Tugade

Marine energy devices are installed in highly dynamic environments and have the potential to affect the benthic and pelagic habitats around them. Regulatory bodies often require baseline characterization and/or post-installation monitoring to determine whether changes in these habitats are being observed. However, a great diversity of technologies is available for surveying and sampling marine habitats, and selecting the most suitable instrument to identify and measure changes in habitats at marine energy sites can become a daunting task. We conducted a thorough review of journal articles, survey reports, and grey literature to extract information about the technologies used, the data collection and processing methods, and the performance and effectiveness of these instruments. We examined documents related to marine energy development, offshore wind farms, oil and gas offshore sites, and other marine industries around the world over the last 20 years. A total of 120 different technologies were identified across six main habitat categories: seafloor, sediment, infauna, epifauna, pelagic, and biofouling. The technologies were organized into 12 broad technology classes: acoustic, corer, dredge, grab, hook and line, net and trawl, plate, remote sensing, scrape samples, trap, visual, and others. Visual was the most common and the most diverse technology class, with applications across all six habitat categories. Technologies and sampling methods that are designed for working efficiently in energetic environments have greater success at marine energy sites. In addition, sampling designs and statistical analyses should be carefully thought through to identify differences in faunal assemblages and spatiotemporal changes in habitats.

2022 ◽  
pp. bmjsrh-2021-201389
Bianca Maria Stifani ◽  
Roopan Gill ◽  
Caron Rahn Kim

BackgroundGlobally, access to safe abortion is limited. We aimed to assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of harm reduction counselling for abortion, which we define as the provision of information about safe abortion methods to pregnant persons seeking abortion.MethodsWe searched PubMed, EMBASE,, Cochrane, Global Index Medicus and the grey literature up to October 2021. We included studies in which healthcare providers gave pregnant persons information on safe use of abortifacient medications without providing the actual medications. We conducted a descriptive summary of results and a risk of bias assessment using the ROBINS-I tool. Our primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant persons who used misoprostol to induce abortion rather than other methods among those who received harm reduction counselling.ResultsWe included four observational studies with a total of 4002 participants. Most pregnant persons who received harm reduction counselling induced abortion using misoprostol (79%–100%). Serious complication rates were low (0%–1%). Uterine aspiration rates were not always reported but were in the range of 6%–22%. Patient satisfaction with the harm reduction intervention was high (85%–98%) where reported. We rated the risk of bias for all studies as high due to a lack of comparison groups and high lost to follow-up rates.DiscussionBased on a synthesis of four studies with serious methodological limitations, most recipients of harm reduction counselling use misoprostol for abortion, have low complication rates, and are satisfied with the intervention. More research is needed to determine abortion success outcomes from the harm reduction approach.FundingThis work did not receive any funding.PROSPERO registration numberWe registered the review in the PROSPERO database of systematic reviews (ID number: CRD42020200849).

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e40811125217
Anyele Albuquerque Lima ◽  
Alda Graciele Claudio dos Santo Almeida ◽  
Izabelly Carollynny Maciel Nunes ◽  
Patrícia de Albuquerque Sarmento ◽  
Wanda Tenório Barros Passos Alves

Objetivos: Identificar complicações/sequelas renais decorrentes da infecção por SARS-CoV-2 em pessoas com COVID-19; e descrever a característica de idade da população estudada. Metodologia: Scoping Review realizada nas bases de dados Web of Science, BVS, Cochrane Library, MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, SCOPUS, Embase, LILACS. E nos sites online: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Grey Literature e Google Scholar. Os descritores utilizados foram (comorbidity OR sequel OR complications), (kidney diseases OR glomerular disease OR acute kidney injury OR nephropathy) AND (coronavirus OR SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19). Critérios de inclusão: artigos em português, inglês e espanhol, com abordagens metodológicas diversas, disponíveis na íntegra, online, publicados no período de 01 de janeiro de 2020 a 29 de setembro de 2021. E de exclusão: pessoas com diagnósticos prévios de patologias renais agudas e/ou crônicas; cartas ao editor; artigos de opinião; editoriais; e notas. Resultados: Selecionaram-se 10 artigos, que evidenciaram que o processo infeccioso causado pelo SARS-CoV-2 pode iniciar com uma leve proteinúria e hematúria, e evoluir para uma injúria renal aguda causada pela diminuição da capacidade de filtração glomerular, que favorece a retenção de algumas escórias nitrogenadas, causando o aumento dos níveis de creatinina e de ureia. Ademais, informaram que indivíduos entre 52-69 anos foram os mais acometidos. Considerações finais: As complicações/sequelas renais decorrentes da infecção por SARS-CoV-2 são: deposição de imunocomplexos nas células renais, proteinúria, hematúria, aumento da creatinina sérica, aumento da ureia nitrogenada no sangue, diminuição da TFG, e IRA estágio 1, 2 e 3. Tais complicações ocorreram principalmente em pessoas com idade ≥ 52 anos.

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