solid organ
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Alexandra Butzmann ◽  
Kaushik Sridhar ◽  
Diwash Jangam ◽  
Hanbing Song ◽  
Amol Singh ◽  

Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are diseases occurring in immunocompromised patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) or solid organ transplantation (SOT). Although PTLD occurs rarely, it may be associated with poor outcomes. In most cases, PTLD is driven by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Few studies have investigated the mutational landscape and gene expression profile of PTLD. In our study, we performed targeted deep sequencing and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) on 16 cases of florid follicular hyperplasia (FFH) type PTLD and 15 cases of other PTLD types that include: ten monomorphic (M-PTLD), three polymorphic (P-PTLD), and two classic Hodgkin lymphoma type PTLDs (CHL-PTLD). Our study identified recurrent mutations in JAK3 in five of 15 PTLD cases and one of 16 FFH-PTLD cases, as well as 16 other genes that were mutated in M-PTLD, P-PTLD, CHL-PTLD and FFH-PTLD. Digital image analysis demonstrated significant differences in single cell area, major axis, and diameter when comparing cases of M-PTLD and P-PTLD to FFH-PTLD. No morphometric relationship was identified with regards to a specific genetic mutation. Our findings suggest that immune regulatory pathways play an essential role in PTLD, with the JAK/STAT pathway affected in many PTLDs.

2022 ◽  
Jessica Hedvat ◽  
David M. Salerno ◽  
Danielle Kovac ◽  
Jenna L. Scheffert ◽  
Heather Corbo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Young Chang ◽  
Soung Won Jeong ◽  
Jae Young Jang

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation associated with various therapeutic interventions is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with current or resolved HBV infection. Because no curative treatment for HBV infection is yet available, there are many individuals at risk for HBV reactivation in the general population. Populations at risk for HBV reactivation include patients who are currently infected with HBV or who have been exposed to HBV in the past. HBV reactivation and its potential consequences is a concern when these populations are exposed to anti-cancer chemotherapy, immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies for the management of various malignancies, rheumatologic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, or solid-organ or hematologic stem cell transplantation. Accordingly, it has become important to understand the basics of HBV reactivation and the mechanisms by which certain therapies are more susceptible to HBV reactivation. This review aims to raise the awareness of HBV reactivation and to understand the mechanisms and the risks of HBV reactivation in various clinical settings.

10.2196/32273 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. e32273
Amy G Feldman ◽  
Susan Moore ◽  
Sheana Bull ◽  
Megan A Morris ◽  
Kumanan Wilson ◽  

Background Vaccine-preventable infections result in significant morbidity, mortality, and costs in pediatric transplant recipients. However, at the time of transplant, less than 20% of children are up-to-date for age-appropriate immunizations that could prevent these diseases. Smartphone apps have the potential to increase immunization rates through their ability to provide vaccine education, send vaccine reminders, and facilitate communication between parents and a multidisciplinary medical group. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the development of a smartphone app, Immunize PediatricTransplant, to promote pretransplant immunization and to report on app functionality and usability when applied to the target population. Methods We used a mixed methods study design guided by the Mobile Health Agile Development and Evaluation Lifecycle. We first completed a formative research including semistructured interviews with transplant stakeholders (12 primary care physicians, 40 parents or guardians of transplant recipients, 11 transplant nurse coordinators, and 19 transplant subspecialists) to explore the acceptability of an immunization app to be used in the pretransplant period. Based on these findings, CANImmunize Inc developed the Immunize PediatricTransplant app. We next held 2 focus group discussions with 5-6 transplant stakeholders/group (n=11; 5 parents of transplant recipients, 2 primary care physicians, 2 transplant nurse coordinators, and 2 transplant subspecialists) to receive feedback on the app. After the app modifications were made, alpha testing was conducted on the functional prototype. We then implemented beta testing with 12 stakeholders (6 parents of transplant recipients, 2 primary care doctors, 2 transplant nurse coordinators, and 2 transplant subspecialists) to refine the app through an iterative process. Finally, the stakeholders completed the user version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (uMARS) to assess the functionality and quality of the app. Results A new Android- and Apple-compatible app, Immunize PediatricTransplant, was developed to improve immunization delivery in the pretransplant period. The app contains information about vaccine use in the pretransplant period, houses a complete immunization record for each child, includes a communication tool for parents and care providers, and sends automated reminders to parents and care providers when immunizations are due. During usability testing, the stakeholders were able to enter a mock vaccine record containing 16 vaccines in an average of 8.1 minutes (SD 1.8) with 87% accuracy. The stakeholders rated engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality of the app as 4.2/5, 4.5/5, 4.6/5, and 4.8/5, respectively. All participants reported that they would recommend this app to families and care teams with a child awaiting solid organ transplant. Conclusions Through a systematic, user-centered, agile, iterative approach, the Immunize PediatricTransplant app was developed to improve immunization delivery in the pretransplant period. The app tested well with end users. Further testing and agile development among patients awaiting transplant are needed to understand real-world acceptability and effectiveness in improving immunization rates in children awaiting transplant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. e1286
Channa R. Jayasekera ◽  
Holenarasipur R. Vikram ◽  
Zeeshan Rifat ◽  
Josiah Wagler ◽  
Keita Okubo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. e1252
James A. Hedley ◽  
Patrick J. Kelly ◽  
Karen M.J. Waller ◽  
Imogen K. Thomson ◽  
Nicole L. De La Mata ◽  

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