Chronic Pain
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2021 ◽  
Vol 154 ◽  
pp. 105806
Atsuo Yoshino ◽  
Naofumi Otsuru ◽  
Go Okada ◽  
Keisuke Tanaka ◽  
Satoshi Yokoyama ◽  

Pain Practice ◽  
2021 ◽  
Dana Dharmakaya Colgan ◽  
Ashley Eddy ◽  
Kaylie Green ◽  
Barry Oken

Phillip Brown ◽  
Wendy Powell ◽  
Neil Dansey ◽  
Miznah Al-Abbadey ◽  
Brett Stevens ◽  

Xiaolin Xu ◽  
Rongmin Chen ◽  
Gaofeng Zhan ◽  
Danning Wang ◽  
Xi Tan ◽  

In recent years, increasing studies have been conducted on the mechanism of gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric diseases and non-neuropsychiatric diseases. The academic community has also recognized the existence of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Chronic pain has always been an urgent difficulty for human beings, which often causes anxiety, depression, and other mental symptoms, seriously affecting people’s quality of life. Hyperalgesia is one of the main adverse reactions of chronic pain. The mechanism of gut microbiota in hyperalgesia has been extensively studied, providing a new target for pain treatment. Enterochromaffin cells, as the chief sentinel for sensing gut microbiota and its metabolites, can play an important role in the interaction between the gut microbiota and hyperalgesia through paracrine or neural pathways. Therefore, this systematic review describes the role of gut microbiota in the pathological mechanism of hyperalgesia, learns about the role of enterochromaffin cell receptors and secretions in hyperalgesia, and provides a new strategy for pain treatment by targeting enterochromaffin cells through restoring disturbed gut microbiota or supplementing probiotics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (18) ◽  
pp. S18-S29
Angela Gregory

Female sexual dysfunction can greatly affect a woman's quality of life. Affected patients need a comprehensive assessment that includes taking a sexual history, medical evaluation and, if appropriate, a manual examination in order to diagnose, treat or identify factors relevant for each individual woman. There may be biological, psychological, emotional and relationship issues. Any biological factors such as vaginal dryness, pelvic floor dysfunction or chronic pain need to be addressed first to help prevent more complex problems developing. Sexual problems may be the cause of or the result of dysfunctional or unsatisfactory relationships. Psychological and emotional factors can create difficulties in sexual response and, equally, they can be the result of unaddressed or untreated biological/medical issues. Nurses working in urology need to be aware of the physiology involved in sexual response and know which conditions and illnesses are likely to affect sexual functioning and which treatments can help.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Eric L. Garland ◽  
Spencer T. Fix ◽  
Justin P. Hudak ◽  
Edward M. Bernat ◽  
Yoshio Nakamura ◽  

Abstract Background Neuropsychopharmacologic effects of long-term opioid therapy (LTOT) in the context of chronic pain may result in subjective anhedonia coupled with decreased attention to natural rewards. Yet, there are no known efficacious treatments for anhedonia and reward deficits associated with chronic opioid use. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE), a novel behavioral intervention combining training in mindfulness with savoring of natural rewards, may hold promise for treating anhedonia in LTOT. Methods Veterans receiving LTOT (N = 63) for chronic pain were randomized to 8 weeks of MORE or a supportive group (SG) psychotherapy control. Before and after the 8-week treatment groups, we assessed the effects of MORE on the late positive potential (LPP) of the electroencephalogram and skin conductance level (SCL) during viewing and up-regulating responses (i.e. savoring) to natural reward cues. We then examined whether these neurophysiological effects were associated with reductions in subjective anhedonia by 4-month follow-up. Results Patients treated with MORE demonstrated significantly increased LPP and SCL to natural reward cues and greater decreases in subjective anhedonia relative to those in the SG. The effect of MORE on reducing anhedonia was statistically mediated by increases in LPP response during savoring. Conclusions MORE enhances motivated attention to natural reward cues among chronic pain patients on LTOT, as evidenced by increased electrocortical and sympathetic nervous system responses. Given neurophysiological evidence of clinical target engagement, MORE may be an efficacious treatment for anhedonia among chronic opioid users, people with chronic pain, and those at risk for opioid use disorder.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (20) ◽  
pp. 6168
Kornél Király ◽  
Dávid Á. Karádi ◽  
Ferenc Zádor ◽  
Amir Mohammadzadeh ◽  
Anna Rita Galambos ◽  

The current protocols for neuropathic pain management include µ-opioid receptor (MOR) analgesics alongside other drugs; however, there is debate on the effectiveness of opioids. Nevertheless, dose escalation is required to maintain their analgesia, which, in turn, contributes to a further increase in opioid side effects. Finding novel approaches to effectively control chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain, is a great challenge clinically. Literature data related to pain transmission reveal that angiotensin and its receptors (the AT1R, AT2R, and MAS receptors) could affect the nociception both in the periphery and CNS. The MOR and angiotensin receptors or drugs interacting with these receptors have been independently investigated in relation to analgesia. However, the interaction between the MOR and angiotensin receptors has not been excessively studied in chronic pain, particularly neuropathy. This review aims to shed light on existing literature information in relation to the analgesic action of AT1R and AT2R or MASR ligands in neuropathic pain conditions. Finally, based on literature data, we can hypothesize that combining MOR agonists with AT1R or AT2R antagonists might improve analgesia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Dmitry M. Davydov ◽  
Carmen M. Galvez-Sánchez ◽  
Casandra Isabel Montoro ◽  
Cristina Muñoz Ladrón de Guevara ◽  
Gustavo A. Reyes del Paso

AbstractA lack of personalized approaches in non-medication pain management has prevented these alternative forms of treatment from achieving the desired efficacy. One hundred and ten female patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and 60 healthy women without chronic pain were assessed for severity of chronic or retrospective occasional pain, respectively, along with alexithymia, depression, anxiety, coping strategies, and personality traits. All analyses were conducted following a ‘resource matching’ hypothesis predicting that to be effective, a behavioral coping mechanism diverting or producing cognitive resources should correspond to particular mechanisms regulating pain severity in the patient. Moderated mediation analysis found that extraverts could effectively cope with chronic pain and avoid the use of medications for pain and mood management by lowering depressive symptoms through the use of distraction mechanism as a habitual (‘out-of-touch-with-reality’) behavior. However, introverts could effectively cope with chronic pain and avoid the use of medications by lowering catastrophizing through the use of distraction mechanism as a situational (‘in-touch-with-reality’) behavior. Thus, personalized behavior management techniques applied according to a mechanism of capturing or diverting the main individual ‘resource’ of the pain experience from its ‘feeding’ to supporting another activity may increase efficacy in the reduction of pain severity along with decreasing the need for pain relief and mood-stabilizing medications.

2021 ◽  
Abhimanyu Sud ◽  
Darren K. Cheng ◽  
Rahim Moineddin ◽  
Erin Zlahtic ◽  
Ross Upshur

AbstractBibliometric analyses of systematic reviews offer unique opportunities to explore the character of specific scientific fields. In this time series-based analysis, dynamics of multidisciplinary care for chronic pain and opioid prescribing are analyzed over a forty-four year time span. Three distinct periods are identified, each defined by distinct research areas, as well as priorities regarding the use of opioids and the appropriate management of chronic pain. These scientometrically defined periods align with timelines identified previously by narrative historical accounts. Through cross-correlation with a mortality time series, a significant two-year lag between opioid overdose mortality and citation dynamics is identified between 2004 and 2019. This analysis demonstrates a bidirectional relationship between the scientific literature and the North American opioid overdose crisis, suggesting that the scientific literature is both reflective and generative of an important health and social phenomenon. A scientometric phenomenon of memory lapse, namely an overt and prolonged failure to cite older relevant literature, is identified using a metric of mean time to citation. It is proposed that this metric can be used to analyze changes in emerging literature and thus predict the nature of clinical and policy responses to the opioid crisis, and thus potentially to other health and social phenomena.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Nils Gasslander ◽  
Sven Alfonsson ◽  
Amanda Jackalin ◽  
Cecilia Tengberg ◽  
Johanna Håkansson ◽  

Abstract Background The burden caused by chronic pain is significant, affecting at least 10 percent of the world´s population. While internet-based treatments based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have been shown to be promising in this area, attrition levels vary significantly. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictor variables for participants’ adherence to an internet-based CBT treatment for individuals with chronic pain as well as to investigate associations between adherence and treatment outcome. Methods Data for this study was retrieved from a randomized controlled trial including 95 individuals with chronic pain who received internet-based CBT. Treatment adherence was studied through three outcome variables: treatment progress, treatment completion and exercise completion. The predictor variables were grouped into four clusters: background variables (age, gender, marital status, level of education, and typical computer usage); the second cluster included health status variables (sick leave, current psychiatric diagnosis, previous psychotherapy for pain, current pharmacological treatment, previous depression, current depression, and current depressive symptoms); the third cluster included pain-related variables (opioid medication, history of pain, and pain symptoms) and the fourth cluster included motivation variables (measured with treatment preference, treatment credibility, compliance to the treatment schedule and contact with the therapists). Results Findings showed that treatment progress was predicted by higher treatment credibility at baseline, whereas participants who were behind schedule in the second week of the program finished fewer treatment modules. When analyzing each cluster of predictor variables separately, current depressive symptoms also predicted fewer completed treatment modules. Among the pain-related variables, higher pain acceptance was the only predictor for completing more treatment modules. Treatment completion (which in this study was defined as having completed at least 75% of treatment modules) was predicted by higher treatment credibility and fewer depressive symptoms at baseline, and was thus similar to the results regarding treatment progress. Finally, all adherence variables predicted the treatment outcome pain interference. Conclusions Low treatment credibility, depressive symptoms and falling behind the treatment schedule early on were the most important predictor variables for low treatment adherence, while a number of demographical and pain-related variables were not related to adherence. The results from this study may help clinicians identify patients who are less likely to complete, and thus benefit from, their pain treatment. Trial registration NTC03316846.

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