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2022 ◽  
Vol 67 ◽  
pp. 33-38
Author(s):  
Michael Millman ◽  
Angela B.S. Santos ◽  
Eduardo G. Pianca ◽  
José Augusto Santos Pellegrini ◽  
Fernanda Carine Conci ◽  
...  

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Author(s):  
Premanshu Kumar Singh ◽  
Aarti Patel ◽  
Anastasia Kaffenes ◽  
Catherine Hord ◽  
Delaney Kesterson ◽  
...  

Advances in cancer research over the past half-century have clearly determined the molecular origins of the disease. Central to the use of molecular signatures for continued progress, including rapid, reliable, and early diagnosis is the use of biomarkers. Specifically, extracellular vesicles as biomarker cargo holders have generated significant interest. However, the isolation, purification, and subsequent analysis of these extracellular vesicles remain a challenge. Technological advances driven by microfluidics-enabled devices have made the challenges for isolation of extracellular vesicles an emerging area of research with significant possibilities for use in clinical settings enabling point-of-care diagnostics for cancer. In this article, we present a tutorial review of the existing microfluidic technologies for cancer diagnostics with a focus on extracellular vesicle isolation methods.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
David F. Stroncek ◽  
Robert P. T. Somerville ◽  
Steven L. Highfill

AbstractThe use of cellular therapies to treat cancer, inherited immune deficiencies, hemoglobinopathies and viral infections is growing rapidly. The increased interest in cellular therapies has led to the development of reagents and closed-system automated instruments for the production of these therapies. For cellular therapy clinical trials involving multiple sites some people are advocating a decentralized model of manufacturing where patients are treated with cells produced using automated instruments at each participating center using a single, centrally held Investigational New Drug Application (IND). Many academic centers are purchasing these automated instruments for point-of-care manufacturing and participation in decentralized multiple center clinical trials. However, multiple site manufacturing requires harmonization of product testing and manufacturing in order to interpret the clinical trial results. Decentralized manufacturing is quite challenging since all centers should use the same manufacturing protocol, the same or comparable in-process and lot release assays and the quality programs from each center must work closely together. Consequently, manufacturing cellular therapies using a decentralized model is in many ways more difficult than manufacturing cells in a single centralized facility. Before an academic center decides to establish a point-of-care cell processing laboratory, they should consider all costs associated with such a program. For many academic cell processing centers, point-of-care manufacturing may not be a good investment.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrew M. Pattock ◽  
Michelle Minna Kim ◽  
Cooper B. Kersey ◽  
Linda Liu ◽  
James N. Kirkpatrick ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yanyang Chen ◽  
Huhu Wang ◽  
Xiyao Chen ◽  
Hairong Ma ◽  
Jingjie Zheng ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Although many markers are used for diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), serological screening and diagnosis for PJI are still challenging. We evaluated the performance of serum D-lactate and compared it with ESR, coagulation-related biomarkers and synovial D-lactate for the diagnosis of PJI.Methods: Consecutive patients with preoperative blood and intraoperative joint aspiration of a prosthetic hip or knee joint before revision arthroplasty were prospectively included. The diagnosis of PJI was based on the criteria of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society, and the diagnostic values of markers were estimated based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by maximizing sensitivity and specificity using optimal cutoff values.Results: Of 52 patients, 26 (50%) were diagnosed with PJI, and 26 (50%) were diagnosed with aseptic failure. ROC curves showed that serum D-lactate, fibrinogen (FIB) and ESR had equal areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.80, followed by D-dimer and fibrin degradation product, which had AUCs of 0.67 and 0.69, respectively. Serum D-lactate had the highest sensitivity of 88.46% at the optimal threshold of 1.14 mmol/L, followed by FIB and ESR, with sensitivities of 80.77% and 73.08%, respectively, while there were no significant differences in specificity (73.08%, 73.08% and 76.92%, respectively). Conclusion: Serum D-lactate showed similar performance to FIB and ESR for diagnosis of PJI. The advantages of serum D-lactate are pathogen-specific, highly sensitive, minimally invasive and rapidly available making serum D-lactate useful as a point-of-care screening test for PJI.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Etienne Joly ◽  
Agnes Maurel Ribes

We have recently described a very simple and cheap serological test called HAT to detect antibodies directed against the RBD of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. HAT is based on hemagglutination, triggered by a single reagent (IH4-RBD) comprised of the viral RBD domain fused to a nanobody specific for glycophorin, which is expressed at very high levels at the surface of human red blood cells (RBCs). One of the main initial goals of this study was to devise a test protocol that would be sensitive and reliable, yet require no specialized laboratory equipment such as adjustable pipets, so that it could be performed in the most remote corners of the world by people with minimal levels of training. Because antibody levels against the viral RBD have been found to correlate closely with sero-neutralisation titers, and thus with protection against reinfection, it has become obvious during the course of this study that making this test reliably quantitative would be a further significant advantage. We have found that, in PBN, a buffer which contains BSA and sodium azide, IH4-RBD is stable for over 6 months at room temperature, and that PBN also improves HAT performance compared to using straight PBS. We also show that performing HAT at either 4°C, room temperature or 37°C has minimal influence on the results, and that quantitative evaluation of the levels of antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV-2 RBD can be achieved in a single step using titration of the IH4-RBD reagent. The HAT-field protocol described here requires only very simple disposable equipment and a few microliters of whole blood, such as can be obtained by finger prick. Because it is based on a single soluble reagent, the test can be adapted very simply and rapidly to detect antibodies against variants of the SARS-CoV-2, or conceivably against different pathogens. HAT-field appears well suited to provide quantitative assessments of the serological protection of populations as well as individuals, and given its very low cost, the stability of the IH4-RBD reagent in the adapted buffer, and the simplicity of the procedure, could be deployed pretty much anywhere, including in the poorest countries and the most remote corners of the globe.


Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Author(s):  
Marta Torres-Arrese ◽  
Gonzalo García de Casasola-Sánchez ◽  
Manuel Méndez-Bailón ◽  
Esther Montero-Hernández ◽  
Marta Cobo-Marcos ◽  
...  

Background and Objectives: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a common disease and a cause of high morbidity and mortality, constituting a major health problem. The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact of multiorgan ultrasound in identifying pulmonary hypertension (PH), a major prognostic factor in patients admitted due to AHF, and assess whether there are significant changes in the venous excess ultrasonography (VE × US) score or femoral vein Doppler at discharge. Materials and Methods: Patients were evaluated with a standard protocol of lung ultrasound, echocardiography, inferior vena cava (IVC) and hepatic, portal, intra-renal and femoral vein Doppler flow patterns at admission and on the day of discharge. Results: Thirty patients were enrolled during November 2021. The mean age was seventy-nine years (Standard Deviation–SD 13.4). Seven patients (23.3%) had a worsening renal function during hospitalization. Regarding ultrasound findings, VE × US score was calculated at admission and at discharge, unexpectedly remaining unchanged or even worsened (21 patients, 70.0%). The area under the curve for the lung score was 83.9% (p = 0.008), obtaining a cutoff value of 10 that showed a sensitivity of 82.6% and a specificity of 71.4% in the identification of intermediate and high PH. It was possible to monitor significant changes between both exams on the lung score (16.5 vs. 9.3; p < 0.001), improvement in the hepatic vein Doppler pattern (2.4 vs. 2.1; p = 0.002), improvement in portal vein Doppler pattern (1.7 vs. 1.4; p = 0.023), without significant changes in the intra-renal vein Doppler pattern (1.70 vs. 1.57; p = 0.293), VE × US score (1.3 vs. 1.1; p = 0.501), femoral vein Doppler pattern (2.4 vs. 2.1; p = 0.161) and IVC collapsibility (2.0 vs. 2.1; p = 0.420). Conclusions: Our study results suggest that performing serial multiorgan Point-of-Care ultrasound can help us to better identify high and intermediate probability of PH patients with AHF. Currently proposed multi-organ, venous Doppler scanning protocols, such as the VE × US score, should be further studied before expanding its use in AHF patients.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 508
Author(s):  
Renzhu Pang ◽  
Qunyan Zhu ◽  
Jia Wei ◽  
Xianying Meng ◽  
Zhenxin Wang

Paper-based analytical devices (PADs), including lateral flow assays (LFAs), dipstick assays and microfluidic PADs (μPADs), have a great impact on the healthcare realm and environmental monitoring. This is especially evident in developing countries because PADs-based point-of-care testing (POCT) enables to rapidly determine various (bio)chemical analytes in a miniaturized, cost-effective and user-friendly manner. Low sensitivity and poor specificity are the main bottlenecks associated with PADs, which limit the entry of PADs into the real-life applications. The application of nanomaterials in PADs is showing great improvement in their detection performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and accuracy since the nanomaterials have unique physicochemical properties. In this review, the research progress on the nanomaterial-based PADs is summarized by highlighting representative recent publications. We mainly focus on the detection principles, the sensing mechanisms of how they work and applications in disease diagnosis, environmental monitoring and food safety management. In addition, the limitations and challenges associated with the development of nanomaterial-based PADs are discussed, and further directions in this research field are proposed.


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