Particulate number emissions during cold-start with diesel and biofuels: A special focus on particle size distribution

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 ◽  
pp. 101953
Ali Zare ◽  
Timothy A. Bodisco ◽  
Puneet Verma ◽  
Mohammad Jafari ◽  
Meisam Babaie ◽  
2013 ◽  
Vol 316-317 ◽  
pp. 1178-1182 ◽  
Di Ming Lou ◽  
Feng Chen ◽  
Yuan Hu Zhi ◽  
Pi Qiang Tan ◽  
Wei Hu

With the use of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) developed by TSI, particle size distribution characteristics of China-IV diesel bus fueled biodiesel are studied under real operating condition. Four mixtures of volume ratio between restaurant waste oil and China-IV diesel 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% respectively (marked separately by BD5, BD10, BD20, BD50), pure biodiesel (BD100) and pure diesel (BD0) were tested. The results indicated that the average velocity of diesel bus is 18km/h. Of the entire operating time, idle operating period accounts for 30%, low and medium velocity 58%, and acceleration and deceleration 89%. In different velocity ranges, the size distribution of particulate number emissions (PNSD) is bimodal; in different acceleration ranges, PNSD shows a gradual transition from bimodal shape to unimodal when bus operation switches from decelerating to accelerating status. Biodiesel blended with higher mixture ratios show significant reduction in PN emissions for accumulated modes, and particulate number emission peaks move towards smaller sizes; but little change was obtained in PN emissions for nuclei modes with its particulate size of peak sustains around 10nm.

2020 ◽  
Vol 69 (4) ◽  
pp. 102-106
Shota Ohki ◽  
Shingo Mineta ◽  
Mamoru Mizunuma ◽  
Soichi Oka ◽  
Masayuki Tsuda

1995 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 75-87 ◽  
Christine M. Woodall ◽  
James E. Peters ◽  
Richard O. Buckius

1998 ◽  
Vol 84 (5) ◽  
pp. 387-392 ◽  
Takashi INOUE ◽  
Yuzo HOSOI ◽  
Hiroyuki TAKENAKA ◽  
Tomonori HANYUDA

2020 ◽  
Vol 86 (1) ◽  
pp. 32-37
Valeria A. Brodskaya ◽  
Oksana A. Molkova ◽  
Kira B. Zhogova ◽  
Inga V. Astakhova

Powder materials are widely used in the manufacture of electrochemical elements of thermal chemical sources of current. Electrochemical behavior of the powders depends on the shape and size of their particles. The results of the study of the microstructure and particles of the powders of vanadium (III), (V) oxides and lithium aluminate obtained by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses are presented. It is found that the sizes of vanadium (III) and vanadium (V) oxide particles range within 70 – 600 and 40 – 350 nm, respectively. The size of the coherent-scattering regions of the vanadium oxide particles lies in the lower range limit which can be attributed to small size of the structural elements (crystallites). An average volumetric-surface diameter calculated on the basis of the surface specific area is close to the upper range limit which can be explained by the partial agglomeration of the powder particles. Unlike the vanadium oxide particles, the range of the particle size distribution of the lithium aluminate powder is narrower — 50 – 110 nm. The values of crystallite sizes are close to the maximum of the particle size distribution. Microstructural analysis showed that the particles in the samples of vanadium oxides have a rounded (V2O3) or elongated (V2O5) shape; whereas the particles of lithium aluminate powder exhibit lamellar structure. At the same time, for different batches of the same material, the particle size distribution is similar, which indicates the reproducibility of the technologies for their manufacture. The data obtained can be used to control the constancy of the particle size distribution of powder materials.

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