Dry Matter
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Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 535
Piyachat Sunanta ◽  
Tanachai Pankasemsuk ◽  
Kittisak Jantanasakulwong ◽  
Thanongsak Chaiyaso ◽  
Noppol Leksawasdi ◽  

This research examined the changes of black garlic (BG) quality attributes when raw materials of different initial moisture contents (iMC) were used. Fresh garlic bulbs (cv. Thai) were shade-dried for eight weeks at a controlled condition at 29 °C and relative humidity (RH) of 55% to the desired iMC (ranging from ca. 50–70%). BG processing was at 75 °C, RH = 80% for ten days. After processing, physiological characteristics and chemical properties of garlic were determined. Results illustrated that fresh garlic with higher moisture content (ca. 70%) resulted in BG of a dark brown colour, sloppy texture, and lesser acidity (pH = 4.44), while samples with lower iMCs (<50%) gave products that were completely black, elastic in texture, and with higher acidity (pH = 3.79). The analysed bioactive compounds, as well as their antioxidative potentials, suggested that the longer the curing time, the higher the functional properties of the finished products, possessing a total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of 15.54 mg/kg dry matter sample, 1.53 mg/kg dry matter sample, and 95.39%, respectively. Principle component analysis (PCA) of active metabolites confirmed that sulfur, S-allyl-L-cysteine, and flavonoid were among the main phytochemicals found in the BG. In summary, higher quality BG can be achieved by using raw materials of lower iMC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (5) ◽  
pp. 44-50
L. D. Urazova ◽  
O. V. Litvinchuk

One reliable way to restore eroded soils and technogenic land is to reclaim it by sowing perennial grasses. Samples of reed canary grass suitable for reclamation of coal dumps in the Kemerovo region have been studied and identified. Experimental work was carried out in the Tomsk region (5811 N, 8300 E) during the period of 2017-2020. The research subjects are represented by samples of reed canary grass taken in 2016. A nursery of study samples suitable for reclamation of coal dumps was laid in 2017 with six numbers - KM-1, KM-2, KM-3, KM-4, KM-5 (Tomsk region), the variety Vityaz (Tomsk region) was used as a standard. The soils of the experimental plots were sod-podzolic acidic loamy sandy loam and loamy with a humus content of no more than 2% in the arable horizon. When evaluating the samples, the main attention is paid to studying the traits and properties that limit their cultivation under taiga conditions: grass density, plant height, foliage, winter hardiness, lodging resistance, seed productivity, green mass yield, resistance to the most common diseases. Over a 3-year study of selections of reed canary grass based on a set of the main economically important traits, the KM-5 sample has been identified. This specimen has a complex of valuable features in creating an adaptive variety suitable for reclamation of coal dumps (foliage - 61.4%, green matter yield - 38.5 t/ha, dry matter - 11.9, seeds - 0.21 t/ha). The selected number has annual reliable additions to the standard in terms of green matter yield of 8.5 t/ha, dry matter yield of 3.3, and seed yield of 0.04 t/ha. Samples KM-1, KM-5 showed high resistance to these diseases: helminthosporiosis - 6.0-6.1%, septoriosis - 2.6-4.2%.

Bellamkonda Murali ◽  
R. Susheela ◽  
M. Shanti ◽  
K. Shailaja ◽  
T. Shashikala

Background: Long-term and stable livestock productivity could be possible only through a year-round supply of quality green fodder and it is essential for the sustainability of dairy farms. The year-round supply of quality green fodder is challenging to livestock farmers; however, it is possible by adopting perennial grass-legume intercropping systems. Methods: A field experiment with eight treatments consisting of two perennial grasses (Napier- bajra hybrid grass and guinea grass) alone or in combination with three fodder legumes (Lucerne, Hedge Lucerne and Sesbania) was conducted for 3 years (2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19) in a sandy loam soil at the Agricultural Research Institute, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad. The treatments were replicated thrice in a randomized block design. Perennial grasses were raised in paired row method (row to row 120cm and plant to plant 60 cm. The legume intercrops were grown with their respective spacing within 120 cm row. Sesbania inter crop was allowed to grow for 6 months and later trimmed to a height of 1 meter in the establishment year. Growth parameters were measured only for grasses at each harvesting and green fodder, dry matter and crude protein yields were recorded for both grasses and legumes at each cut and accumulated annually (total 6 cuts/year) for statistical analyses. Result: The results indicated that among the grasses, Napier-bajra hybrid recorded significantly higher green fodder, dry matter and crude protein yields; in case of leguminous inter crops, Sesbania recorded highest green fodder, dry matter and crude protein yields followed by Hedge Lucerne. About total productivity of the system, Napier-bajra hybrid + Sesbania (2:1) cropping system recorded highest green fodder, dry matter and crude protein yields. Highest net returns and B:C ratio was also noted with Napier bajra hybrid +Sesbania (2:1) cropping system and proved to be the best perennial fodder system for year-round supply fodder to the livestock.

A.Yu. Aliev ◽  
S.V. Fedotov ◽  
N.S. Belozertseva ◽  
I.M. Yakhaev

A complex of mammological studies was carried out in experimental farms of the Vladimir region. Lactating cows underwent an express diagnosis of the health of the udder with the California mastitis test, and based on the result obtained, three groups of animals were formed, 20 animals each. The animals of the first group had a questionable reaction to the California express method; animals the second - weakly positive; the third group included blood with negative reaction to tests (control). In studies of milk from cows with suspected udder inflammation, a decrease in dry matter content and a change in the quantitative ratio between the constituents of milk were found. The dry matter content in the milk of the cows of the 1st experimental group exceeded this indicator in the milk of the 2nd group of cows by 7.6%; and lagged behind the control by 12.8%. When milk from sick cows was heated, some of the whey proteins were destabilized. The titratable acidity of the milk of the cows of the 1st experimental group was within the limits stipulated by GOST for the prepared milk, while in the cows of the 2nd group it was reduced to 13.22 ± 0.16 ° T, which indicates the onset of the inflammatory process in the mammary gland. When carrying out echographic visualization of the excretory system of the udder of cows, the following features were revealed: with a large volume of the milk cistern, the main type of branching of the excretory system was observed; with medium and small - mixed type; and with mild - loose As a result of the experiment, it can be concluded that animals with a weakly positive reaction to the California Mastitis Test are less productive and they receive milk of lower quality, which is practically not suitable for further use for technological purposes. However, according to the current Technical Regulations, this milk can correspond to the first or second grade.

Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1205
Musen Wang ◽  
Fujin Zhang ◽  
Xinxin Zhang ◽  
Ying Yun ◽  
Lei Wang ◽  

The objective of this work was to evaluate the pH, chemical composition, minerals, vitamins, and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of silage prepared with lucerne, sweet maize stalk (MS), and their mixtures. Freshly chopped lucerne and MS were combined in ratios of 100:0 (M0, control), 80:20 (M20), 60:40 (M40), 40:60 (M60), 20:80 (M80), and 0:100 (M100) on a fresh matter basis. Each treatment was prepared in triplicate, and a total of eighteen silos were fermented for 65 days. After 65 days of fermentation, the pH values in M0, M20, M40, M60, M80, and M100 silages were 5.47, 4.84, 4.23, 4.13, 3.79, and 3.61, respectively. As the MS proportion in the mixtures increased, silage K, Ca, P, Na, Fe, and Cu concentrations linearly decreased (p < 0.001) and so did vitamins B5 and K1 and α-tocopherol. In vitro rumen dry matter and organic matter degradability, pH, ammonia, total volatile fatty acid, and gas production linearly decreased (p < 0.01), while neutral detergent fiber concentration linearly increased (p < 0.001), with increasing proportion of MS. The in vitro dry matter and organic matter degradability rapidly decreased when the MS percentage was ≥60%. In conclusion, the M40 silage is the most suitable for livestock utilization in local forage production considering the balance of silage pH, nutritional quality, and in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 603-615
Tansel Kaygısız Aşçıoğul ◽  
Bülent Yağmur ◽  
Mehmet Kadri Bozokalfa ◽  
Dursun Eşiyok

The objective of the present work was to evaluate variability for dry matter, protein and mineral N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), K (potassium), Ca (calcium), Mg (magnesium) composition of nutritionally important and widely consumed wild edible plants in Aegean region of Turkey, and to assess their mineral diversity using multivariate analysis. The plant material comprises 17 edible plants collected from native found, the data were subject to analysis of variance, and a Pearson correlation test used to determine the correlations between dry matter, protein content and N, P, K, Ca, Mg composition. Principal component analysis was performed on the result of examine compositions and the factor loadings, eigenvalues and percentage of cumulative variance were calculated, the patterns of relationships among nutritive element were shown three-dimension scatter plot. Multivariate analysis revealed considerable variation for the most of concentration and explained 81.49% of total variation accounted for three PC axes. The data reveal that selected wild plant provide significant nutrition and exhibited great variability among the species. Although soil mineral concentration, availability, fertilization and environment may have influenced on nutrient accumulation in plant tissue, genetic variability is considerable influenced on mineral composition of plant.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_S1) ◽  
pp. S129-S133
Cory T Parsons ◽  
Julia M Dafoe ◽  
Samuel A Wyffels ◽  
Timothy DelCurto ◽  
Darrin L Boss

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 617-624
Sosa-Rubio Edgar Enrique ◽  
Herrera-Cool Gilbert Jose ◽  
Zavaleta-Cordova Maria Del Carmen ◽  
Montoya-Reyes Francisco ◽  

The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of the application of Rhizobium bacteria in the biomass production of forage legumes. Rhizobiumstrains were isolated and selected from the rhizosphere of five forage species. Characterization and subsequent cultivation were carried out to inoculate plants in a greenhouse. Subsequently, the biofertilizer was prepared to apply it to five forage legumes: C. ternatea, L. leucocephala, C. macrocarpum, M. pruriens and C. cajan. Plants were germinated in petri dishes and on substrate, after 10 days of germination, they were transplanted into Leonards Jugs and watered with distilled water. The plants were placed in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The evaluations were carried out every week measuring plant heightand at the end of the experiment root weigh, dry matter of aerial part and radicular volume. The best values obtained were in M. pruriens which showed from 49 to 50 cm of plant height. For cross inoculation in weight variable was observed that the strains from C. ternatea and L. leucocephala showed the best results with 0.22 and 0.25 g/plant respectively. Although the best data of dry matter of aerial part was observed in L. leucocephalawith 0.40 g, better response of Radicular volume and plant height was observed in strains that came from C. ternatea with 2 mL and 7 cm respectively. In this study it can be conclude that the use of biofertilizers can be an alternative for low-cost forage production, as long as it contains Rhizobium strains capable of associating with legumes and fixing atmospheric nitrogen.

Pedro H V Carvalho ◽  
Mariana F Westphalen ◽  
Flavia A S Silva ◽  
Tara L Felix

Abstract Objectives were to evaluate the effects of cattle breed, Holstein or Angus, and forage inclusion on total tract digestibility and ruminal pH in cattle fed a whole shelled corn (WSC) based diet. Six Holstein and 6 Angus steers, were assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors included breed, Holstein or Angus, and forage inclusion at 0, 8, or 16% forage (dry matter (DM) basis). Steers were fed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square, split-plot design. Each period consisted of 14 d diet adaptation followed by 7 d of sample collection. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedures in SAS (v9.4 SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). Repeated measures were used to analyze changes in ruminal pH over time. There was no interaction of breed × diet (P ≥ 0.19) on dry matter intake (DMI) or digestibility; however, Holstein steers had greater (P = 0.03) DMI than Angus steers. Despite the impact of breed on intake, there was no effect (P ≥ 0.33) of breed on diet digestibility. Digestibility of DM increased (linear; P &lt; 0.01) as forage was removed from the diet, but there were no differences (P ≥ 0.32) in NDF and starch digestibility. However, due to the change in diet, NDF intake digested on a grams per day basis increased (P ≤ 0.01) and starch intake digested (g/d) decreased (P = 0.01) as forage inclusion increased. There was a tendency for breed × diet interaction (P = 0.08) on ruminal pH. Holstein steers fed 8% or 16% forage had greater ruminal pH than Holstein steers fed 0% forage; but, ruminal pH of Angus steers was not altered by diet.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 2608
Hamza Bouras ◽  
Ahmed Bouaziz ◽  
Redouane Choukr-Allah ◽  
Abdelaziz Hirich ◽  
Krishna Prasad Devkota ◽  

Salinity is a major problem affecting crop production in many regions in the world including Morocco. Agricultural practices such as fertilization could be useful to overcome this problem and improve crop productivity. The objective of our study was to evaluate the combined effect of phosphorus fertilization and irrigation water salinity on growth, yield, and stomatal conductance of forage corn (Zea mays L.) cv. “Sy sincerro”. Field experiments were carried out for two years testing four levels of irrigation water salinity (ECw = 0.7; 2, 4, and 6 dS·m−1) and three rates of phosphorus (105, 126, and 150 kg P2O5·ha−1) fertilization conducted in a split-plot design with three replications. The obtained results show that irrigation water salinity had a negative effect on all monitored parameters. For instance, the dry matter yield reduced by an average of 19.3 and 25.1% compared to the control under saline irrigation with an EC value equal to 4 and 6 dS·m−1, respectively. The finding also showed that phosphorus applications tend to increase root weight, root length, stem length, leaf stomatal conductance, grain yield and dry matter yield under salinity conditions. For example, the addition of phosphorus with a rate of 126 and 150 kg P2O5·ha−1 respectively improved dry matter yield by an average of 4 and 9% under low salinity level (ECw = 2 dS·m−1), by 4 and 15% under medium salinity (4 dS·m−1), and by 6 and 8% under a high salinity level (6 dS·m−1). Our finding suggests that supplementary P application could be one of the best practices to reduce the adverse effects of high salinity on growth and development of forage corn.

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