Bovine mastitis is one of the main causes of economic damage in dairy farms. Therefore, the control and prevention of microorganisms involved in this disease, mainly Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae, are essential. One of the most important steps for the prevention of the disease is the use of antiseptic products before and after the milking process to avoid bacteria from infecting the udder of the animal. Currently, the most used antiseptic product in dairy farms is iodine-based, and organic dairy farms, which follow several strict regulations, including the use of natural products whenever possible, are often forced to adopt non-natural antiseptic products, such as iodine-based ones, because of the lack of natural alternatives. Propolis, a natural substance produced by honeybees, has been extensively studied for its various properties, one of which is antimicrobial activity. Therefore, a new natural antiseptic product containing 1% propolis in 10% hydroalcoholic solution for the pre-dipping, and 10% glycerol solution added with 0.2% citronella oil for the post-dipping was analyzed for its capacity to reduce bacteria in vivo in order to prevent bovine mastitis, allowing its use on organic dairy farms. A total of 128 samples were analyzed in terms of bacterial growth for Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus spp. using the spreadplate technique. The reduction in the bacterial concentration after the application of the products was compared between two antiseptic solutions, an iodine-based solution as the control and a propolis-based one as the natural alternative. The results obtained show a similar efficiency for both products in terms of total bacterial reduction, indicating considerable antimicrobial activity against bacteria most commonly associated with bovine mastitis. Molecular analysis was carried out for the identification of Streptococcus agalactiae; the PCR results were negative for the presence of S. agalactiae in all samples, indicating that the animals most likely did not have any form of the disease. The efficiency of the natural antiseptic was satisfactory, indicating an important find facilitating organic milk production worldwide, showcasing a natural antiseptic solution with efficient antimicrobial activity.
Canada has implemented on-farm antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance systems for food-producing animals under the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (CIPARS); however, dairy cattle have not been included in that program yet. The objective of this manuscript was to describe the development and implementation of the Canadian Dairy Network for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance (CaDNetASR). An Expert Panel (EP) of researchers was created to lead the development of the dairy surveillance system. The EP initiated a draft document outlining the essential elements of the surveillance framework. This document was then circulated to a Steering Committee (SC), which provided recommendations used by the EP to finalize the framework. CaDNetASR has the following components: (1) a herd-level antimicrobial use quantification system; (2) annually administered risk factor questionnaires; and (3) methods for herd-level detection of AMR in three sentinel enteric pathogens (generic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp.) recovered from pooled fecal samples collected from calves, heifers, cows, and the manure pit. A total of 144 dairy farms were recruited in five Canadian provinces (British-Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and Nova-Scotia), with the help of local herd veterinarians and regional field workers, and in September 2019, the surveillance system was launched. 97.1 and 94.4% of samples were positive for E. coli, 63.8, and 49.1% of samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., and 5.0 and 7.7% of samples were positive for Salmonella spp., in 2019 and 2020, respectively. E. coli was equally distributed among all sample types. However, it was more likely that Campylobacter spp. were recovered from heifer and cow samples. On the other hand, it was more common to isolate Salmonella spp. from the manure pit compared to samples from calves, heifers, or cows. CaDNetASR will continue sampling until 2022 after which time this system will be integrated into CIPARS. CaDNetASR will provide online access to farmers and veterinarians interested in visualizing benchmarking metrics regarding AMU practices and their relationship to AMR and animal health in dairy herds. This will provide an opportunity to enhance antimicrobial stewardship practices on dairy farms in Canada.
Veterinary Herd Health Management plays an important role in veterinary medicine on dairy farms and has also been mandatory at the European Union level since April 21, 2021. Despite the increasing importance of VHHM, little is known about the extent of utilization of VHHM by dairy farmers and their view on this type of collaboration. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aimed to determine the status quo of the currently practiced VHHM in Germany. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted among dairy farmers in November and December 2020. From 216 analyzed questionnaires, about half (n = 106) of the surveyed dairy farmers used VHHM at different scopes. However, regardless of the group, the term “veterinary herd health management” generally was given most relative importance by the participants as a veterinary service for herd fertility improvement, rather than the actual definition of a holistic approach. In contrast to this, the actual motivation of the VHHM participants, to take part in such a program was primarily based on the desire to safeguard animal health by employing preventive measures, that is, to avoid the occurrence of diseases via improved management and to improve farm performance (and profitability). Dairy farmers who opted for VHHM tended to manage larger higher yielding herds than those who did not. Additionally, the farmers in latter farms were more likely to make joint animal health decisions with their veterinarians. Using a latent class analysis, two groups of farmers among farms that were not currently using VHHM were identified, one of which expressed great interest in using VHHM while the other did not. Since the new legal basis makes the topic even more relevant than before, dairy farmers, animals, and veterinarians might benefit from the study to exploit hidden opportunities for VHHM collaboration.
The utilization of livestock waste has attracted increasing attention in recent years. The presence of high levels of heavy metals is a major obstacle to the utilization of biogas as a fertilizer resource. In this study, the heavy metal contents in biogas residue, slurry, and discharged sewage from three representative farms of gooseries, henneries, and dairy farms in the Yangtze River Basin were investigated and assessed. The results demonstrated that heavy metals, including Cd, Mn, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, etc., could be detected in all biogas residues, with significantly different contents between farm types (p < 0.005). Specifically, biogas residues from the goosery and the dairy farms met “China’s Organic Fertilizer Standards” (COF Standards); however, Cd concentrations in biogas residues from hennery farms exceeded the limits by five times. The concentrations of Cd and Pb in biogas slurries from all of the farms exceeded the limits of the “China Farmland Irrigation Water Quality Standard” (CFIWQ Standard). In particular, the Pb concentrations in biogas slurry from the dairy farms exceeded the limits by 29 times, and the discharged sewage from all three farm types complied with the comprehensive sewage discharge standards in China; however, only that from the goosery farms was suitable for irrigation. Thus, it is recommended to increase the feed selection, biogas engineering, and biological-purification-supporting technology, and to carry out regular sampling inspections of the biogas residue, slurry, and discharged sewage for heavy metals, so that environmental and crop pollution risks can be reduced when they are used as sources of nutrients for eco-friendly agriculture.
Antimicrobials are extensively used in cattle and poultry production in Tanzania. However, there is dearth of information on its quantitative use. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to September 2019 in randomly selected poultry and small-scale dairy farms, in three districts of Dar es Salaam City eastern, Tanzania, to assess the practice and quantify antimicrobial use. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed at a confidence interval of 95%. The ratio of Used Daily Dose (UDD) and Defined Daily Dose (DDD) were used to determine whether the antimicrobial was overdosed or under dosed.
A total of 51 poultry and 65 small-scale dairy farms were involved in the study. The route of antimicrobial administration was 98% orally via drinking water and 2% in feeds for poultry and for small-scale dairy farms, all through parenteral route. Seventeen types of antimicrobials comprising seven classes were recorded in poultry farms while nine belonging to six classes in the small dairy farms. Majority of the farms (poultry, 87.7% and small scale dairy, 84.3%) used antimicrobials for therapeutic purposes. About 41% of the poultry and one third (34%) of the dairy farmers’ were not compliant to the drug withdrawal periods. Beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and macrolides were the commonly used antimicrobials on these farms. In the poultry farms both those with records and those which relied on recall, antimicrobials were overdosed whereas in the small dairy farms, sulfadimidine, oxytetracycline and neomycin were within the appropriate dosing range (0.8–1.2). The majority (58.6%) of farmers had adequate level of practices (favorable) regarding antimicrobial use in cattle and poultry production. This was associated with the age and level of education of the cattle and poultry farmers.
The study revealed a widespread misuse of antimicrobials of different types and classes in both poultry and small-scale dairy farming in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. This result gives insight into the antimicrobial use practices and its quantification. The information obtained can guide and promote prudent use of antimicrobials among the farmers by developing mitigate strategies that reduce antimicrobial resistance risk potentials.
Purpose of research: The aim of the study was to determine the presence of Listeria spp. strains in the milk samples obtained from dairy farms in north-eastern Poland and to determine the profile of resistance to antibiotics recommended in the treatment of listeriosis. Material and methods: 500 samples of bulk milk were analyzed. Milk samples were obtained from dairy farms located in Warmia and Mazury region in Poland. Chronic mastitis, requiring frequent and long-term use of antibiotics has been documented in these herds. Isolation of Listeria spp. was performed according to the standard procedure PN-EN ISO 11290-1: 2017-07. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by the disc diffusion method according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Results: In total, out of 500 samples of pooled milk, based on biochemical properties, 8 isolates were confirmed as belonging to the genus Listeria (1.6%). The further identification of Listeria strains on the basis of MicrobactListeria12L showed that 3 strains (3/8, 37.5%) belonged to L. monocytogenes species and 5 strains (5/8, 62.5%) belonged to L. innocua species. The analysis of sensitivity to commonly used antimicrobial agents showed that all isolates, both belonging to L. monocytogenes and L. innocua species, were sensitive to ampicillin. Multidrug resistance, defined as resistance to at least three classes of antibiotics, was confirmed among four isolates (50%). Research summary: The studies undertaken revealed that raw milk can pose a risk for public health due to the prevalence of pathogenic Listeria spp. among which multidrug resistant strains are present. It is therefore necessary to rationalize the use of antibiotics and to monitor bacterial resistance in the food production environment.