corrosion rate
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Microbiome ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Pauliina Rajala ◽  
Dong-Qiang Cheng ◽  
Scott A. Rice ◽  
Federico M. Lauro

Abstract Background Metal corrosion in seawater has been extensively studied in surface and shallow waters. However, infrastructure is increasingly being installed in deep-sea environments, where extremes of temperature, salinity, and high hydrostatic pressure increase the costs and logistical challenges associated with monitoring corrosion. Moreover, there is currently only a rudimentary understanding of the role of microbially induced corrosion, which has rarely been studied in the deep-sea. We report here an integrative study of the biofilms growing on the surface of corroding mooring chain links that had been deployed for 10 years at ~2 km depth and developed a model of microbially induced corrosion based on flux-balance analysis. Methods We used optical emission spectrometry to analyze the chemical composition of the mooring chain and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry coupled with scanning electron microscopy to identify corrosion products and ultrastructural features. The taxonomic structure of the microbiome was determined using shotgun metagenomics and was confirmed by 16S amplicon analysis and quantitative PCR of the dsrB gene. The functional capacity was further analyzed by generating binned, genomic assemblies and performing flux-balance analysis on the metabolism of the dominant taxa. Results The surface of the chain links showed intensive and localized corrosion with structural features typical of microbially induced corrosion. The microbiome on the links differed considerably from that of the surrounding sediment, suggesting selection for specific metal-corroding biofilms dominated by sulfur-cycling bacteria. The core metabolism of the microbiome was reconstructed to generate a mechanistic model that combines biotic and abiotic corrosion. Based on this metabolic model, we propose that sulfate reduction and sulfur disproportionation might play key roles in deep-sea corrosion. Conclusions The corrosion rate observed was higher than what could be expected from abiotic corrosion mechanisms under these environmental conditions. High corrosion rate and the form of corrosion (deep pitting) suggest that the corrosion of the chain links was driven by both abiotic and biotic processes. We posit that the corrosion is driven by deep-sea sulfur-cycling microorganisms which may gain energy by accelerating the reaction between metallic iron and elemental sulfur. The results of this field study provide important new insights on the ecophysiology of the corrosion process in the deep sea.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Qing Li ◽  
Xiaojian Xia ◽  
Zibo Pei ◽  
Xuequn Cheng ◽  
Dawei Zhang ◽  

AbstractIn this work, the atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels was monitored at six different sites (and hence, atmospheric conditions) using Fe/Cu-type atmospheric corrosion monitoring technology over a period of 12 months. After analyzing over 3 million data points, the sensor data were interpretable as the instantaneous corrosion rate, and the atmospheric “corrosivity” for each exposure environment showed highly dynamic changes from the C1 to CX level (according to the ISO 9223 standard). A random forest model was developed to predict the corrosion rate and investigate the impacts of ten “corrosive factors” in dynamic atmospheres. The results reveal rust layer, wind speed, rainfall rate, RH, and chloride concentration, played a significant role in the corrosion process.

10.5006/3972 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Hamaid Khan ◽  
Gökhan Özer ◽  
Mustafa Safa Yilmaz ◽  
Gürkan Tarakçı

Existing studies suggest that martensite-to-austenite reversion can increase the overall mechanical strength of maraging steel. Their effect on corrosion properties, however, is unclear. Selective laser melted (SLM) specimens were tempered near austenite finish temperatures to investigate the electrochemical effect of reversed austenite. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to characterize their microstructure. To define and test pitting performance, potentiodynamic polarization and open-circuit potential were performed in a 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. The reversed austenite precipitated mainly along the martensite lath boundaries during the Intercritical heat treatment at 720°C. The nucleation of reversed austenite is allowed by the local Ni enrichment caused by the dissolution of intermetallic particles. As a result, the tempered 720°C specimens reported a higher pitting potential, lowest corrosion current density, and lowest corrosion rate than the as-printed, aged, and homogenized specimens. No investigations have been performed to date that demonstrate the impact of austenite reversion on the corrosion susceptibility of SLM maraging steel. Other than being nobler, austenite is lighter than martensite due to reduced precipitant density, accounting for fewer galvanic cells and a lower corrosion rate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 169-177
Faradisa Anindita ◽  
Noviyan Darmawan ◽  
Zainal Alim Mas'ud

Corrosion is a physical interaction between the metal and its environment, which results in changes in the metal's properties due to chemical or electrochemical reactions. The corrosion rate can be reduced by adding a corrosion inhibitor. Uses of nanotechnology for corrosion prevention is one of the first technical because almost made structures rely on the stability of a 1–2 nm thick passive film which provides stability to the underlying material. Herein we report the thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of carbon-dots from Durian as inhibitor copper corrosion. To test the anticorrosive performance and analyze thermodynamic properties in its role as a corrosion inhibitor on copper using potentiodynamic polarization. The thermodynamic-kinetic parameters of corrosion obtained values of H‡ = 60.44 kJmol-1, ΔS‡ = -73.9 kJmol-1, and ΔG‡ = 82.83 kJmol-1, show that the attendance of C-dot as a corrosion inhibitor causes a non-spontaneous reaction rate to be proven by increasing spontaneity (ΔG‡). The value of activation energy samples was higher than the blank, indicates the presence of C-dot effective to reduce the rate of corrosion of the metal.

Dwi Kemala Putri ◽  
Addin Akbar

Corrosion is a decrease in the quality of a metal material caused by a reaction with the environment. Reducing the corrosion rate on steel can be done by adding an inhibitor. Papaya leaf extract (Carica papaya.L) can be used as a corrosion inhibitor by immersion method. The effect of inhibitor on corrosion rate had been studied using weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization method, and observation of steel surface using photooptic. It was found that corrosion rate decrease with increase concentration of papaya leaves extract. The highest inhibiton efficiency is 87.8% in 0.2 M hydrochloric acid with 2% concentration of papaya leaves extract. Potentiodynamic polarization method showed that papaya leaves extract decrease corrotion current. Inhibiton efficiency reached 81.58% in 2% extract concentration in which corrosion current decrease from 0.0266 mA/cm2 to 0.0049 mA/cm2. Analysis of photooptic showed that there is difference on steel surface corroded in hydrochloric acid with inhibitor and without it.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Jun Xiao ◽  
Shaoguang Yang ◽  
Aimin Zhao

Purpose High silicon iron-based alloys possess excellent corrosion resistance in certain specific media, but the effects of electrolysis parameters on corrosion resistance remain unknown. This study aims to guide the development and application of an extra-low carbon high silicon iron-based alloy (ECHSIA) in electrode plates. Design/methodology/approach The corrosion resistance of ECHSIA and a conventional high-silicon cast iron (CHSCI) was analyzed through experimental characterizations. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of electrolysis parameters on the corrosion resistance of ECHSIA was investigated through corrosion experiments. The relationship between the electrolysis parameters and the corrosion resistance of ECHSIA was statistically investigated using the grey correlation analysis method. Findings The corrosion resistance of the ECHSIA is better than that of the CHSCI. The corrosion rate showed an increasing tendency with the increase in the nitric acid concentration (CHNO3), electrolyte temperature and current density. The grey correlation analysis results showed that the CHNO3 was the main factor affecting the corrosion rate of the ECHSIA. Originality/value An ECHSIA with a single ferrite microstructure was prepared. This study provides a guideline for the future development and application of ECHSIAs as electrode plates.

Sarah Yasir ◽  
Jose Luis Endrino ◽  
Elena Guillén ◽  
Adrianus Indrat Aria

AbstractCorrosion behaviour of stainless steel 347 was investigated in a molten nitrate salt (60 wt% NaNO3 + 40 wt% KNO3) immersion at 565 °C for up to 3000 h. A growth of stratified oxide layers consisting of NaFeO2, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 was observed on the stainless steel surface with a constant gravimetric corrosion rate of ~ 0.4 µm/year. The feasibility of using Ni3Al coatings deposited by means of air plasma spray for suppression of corrosion was investigated. Ni3Al coatings were observed to undergo a fast oxidation with a corrosion rate of ~ 2.7 µm/year in the first 500 h, and subsequently stabilise between 500 and 3000 h with no observable changes in microstructure, composition and weight at a corrosion rate of ~ 0.02 µm/year. The results presented in this study strongly suggest that Ni3Al coating suppresses the formation of oxide layers on the surface of stainless steel substrates and can be used as protection against corrosion in the presence of molten nitrate salts, which is of relevance to thermal energy storage applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (12) ◽  
pp. 375-386
Mahmoud Abbas ◽  
M. A. Shahin ◽  
Mohamed M. I. Ahmed ◽  
Magdy Kasem ◽  

It is well know that recirculating open cooling water system at metal/ water surface contact appear frequent corrosion products, like scales, foaling and material losses which are have great effect on cooling process. Passivation helps to maintain clean heat transfer surface by inhibiting oxides scales through creating outer passive layer. Passivators are substances which usually have a sufficiently high equilibrium potential and sufficiently low over potential decrease corrosion rate on attainment of passivity. One of the most popular passivator is organic phosphate Phosphinosuccinic oligomer C15H14O4P component (PSO) The study of passivation of carbon steel pipe line in recirculating open cooling water system was the aim of this present work. Maximum efficiency of passivator was determined and surface morphology were investigated using optical, scanning microscopy, phase analysis of the formed protective layer was exam by XRD and EDX. Corrosion in running water with and without PSO at 2 m3/hr flow rate was investigated using corrosion coupon rack. It was found that 200 ppm (PSO) decreases corrosion rate of carbon steel pipe in 3.5% NaCL solution from 23 to 7 mpy in stagnate water corrosion testing, while in running water in 3.5% NaCL solution it decreases from 45 to 18 mpy. XDR showed that the protective layer due to passivation is mainly Magnetite (Fe3O4) compound.

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