Size Distribution
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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Moeko Kudo ◽  
Sidikejiang Wupuer ◽  
Shinji Kubota ◽  
Kazuhiko Seki

The aim of this study was to elucidate the size and distribution of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in non-human primates and to compare them with those of rodent DRG neurons. By measuring the size of NeuN-, NF200-, and peripherin-positive DRG neurons in the lumbar spinal cord of rats and marmosets, we found that the cell size distribution pattern was comparable in both species, although DRG neurons in marmosets were larger than those of rodents. This is the first demonstration that DRG neurons in marmosets have a bimodal size distribution, which has been well established in rodents and humans.

2021 ◽  
Shuaiqi Tang ◽  
Jerome D. Fast ◽  
Kai Zhang ◽  
Joseph C. Hardin ◽  
Adam C. Varble ◽  

Abstract. An Earth System Model (ESM) aerosol-cloud diagnostics package is developed to facilitate the routine evaluation of aerosols, clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions simulated by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM). The first version focuses on comparing simulated aerosol properties with aircraft, ship, and surface measurements, most of them are measured in-situ. The diagnostics currently covers six field campaigns in four geographical regions: Eastern North Atlantic (ENA), Central U.S. (CUS), Northeastern Pacific (NEP) and Southern Ocean (SO). These regions produce frequent liquid or mixed-phase clouds with extensive measurements available from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and other agencies. Various types of diagnostics and metrics are performed for aerosol number, size distribution, chemical composition, CCN concentration and various meteorological quantities to assess how well E3SM represents observed aerosol properties across spatial scales. Overall, E3SM qualitatively reproduces the observed aerosol number concentration, size distribution and chemical composition reasonably well, but underestimates Aitken mode and overestimates accumulation mode aerosols over the CUS region, and underestimates aerosol number concentration over the SO region. The current version of E3SM struggles to reproduce new particle formation events frequently observed over both the CUS and ENA regions, indicating missing processes in current parameterizations. The diagnostics package is coded and organized in a way that can be easily extended to other field campaign datasets and adapted to higher-resolution model simulations. Future releases will include comprehensive cloud and aerosol-cloud interaction diagnostics.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2163
Wenying Li ◽  
Hongyang Lin ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Zhenxiao Shang ◽  
Qiuhong Li ◽  

Oily sludge (OS) contains a large number of hazardous materials, and froth flotation can achieve oil recovery and non-hazardous disposal of OS simultaneously. The influence of flotation parameters on OS treatment and the flotation mechanism were studied. OS samples were taken from Shengli Oilfield in May 2017 (OSS) and May 2020 (OST), respectively. Results showed that Na2SiO3 was the suitable flotation reagent treating OSS and OST, which could reduce the viscosity between oil and solids. Increasing flotation time, impeller speed and the ratio of liquid to OS could enhance the pulp shear effect, facilitate the formation of bubble and reduce pulp viscosity, respectively. Under the optimized parameters, the oil content of OST residue could be reduced to 1.2%, and that of OSS could be reduced to 0.6% because of OSS with low heavy oil components and wide solid particle size distribution. Orthogonal experimental results showed that the impeller speed was the most significant factor of all parameters for OSS and OST, and it could produce shear force to decrease the intensity of C-H bonds and destabilize the OS. The oil content of residue could be reduced effectively in the temperature range of 24–45 °C under the action of high impeller speed.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260226
Gunda Singer ◽  
Roman Overko ◽  
Serife Yilmaz ◽  
Emanuele Crisostomi ◽  
Robert Shorten

The recent uptake in popularity in vehicles with zero tailpipe emissions is a welcome development in the fight against traffic induced airborne pollutants. As vehicle fleets become electrified, and tailpipe emissions become less prevalent, non-tailpipe emissions (from tires and brake disks) will become the dominant source of traffic related emissions, and will in all likelihood become a major concern for human health. This trend is likely to be exacerbated by the heavier weight of electric vehicles, their increased power, and their increased torque capabilities, when compared with traditional vehicles. While the problem of emissions from tire wear is well-known, issues around the process of tire abrasion, its impact on the environment, and modelling and mitigation measures, remain relatively unexplored. Work on this topic has proceeded in several discrete directions including: on-vehicle collection methods; vehicle tire-wear abatement algorithms and controlling the ride characteristics of a vehicle, all with a view to abating tire emissions. Additional approaches include access control mechanisms to manage aggregate tire emissions in a geofenced area with other notable work focussing on understanding the particle size distribution of tire generated PM, the degree to which particles become airborne, and the health impacts of tire emissions. While such efforts are already underway, the problem of developing models to predict the aggregate picture of a network of vehicles at the scale of a city, has yet to be considered. Our objective in this paper is to present one such model, built using ideas from Markov chains. Applications of our modelling approach are given toward the end of this note, both to illustrate the utility of the proposed method, and to illustrate its application as part of a method to collect tire dust particles.

2021 ◽  
Shenlin Yang ◽  
Fang Pu ◽  
Zhen Wang ◽  
Zhaoqi Liu ◽  
Manhou Li

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Haixiang Zhang ◽  
Ye Gao ◽  
Xiwen Zhang ◽  
Xian Yi ◽  
Yanxia Du ◽  

AbstractThis work investigates the splashing behaviors of droplets impacting on solid surfaces and mainly focuses on the characteristics of secondary droplets. According to the experimental results, two different splashing patterns, corona splash and levitating-lamella breakup, are observed. A new breakup mode, named rim-segmenting, is found during the levitating-lamella breakup. In particular, the detailed information of the splashing secondary droplets, including the size, velocity, angle, and total volume of the splashing secondary droplets is obtained from the experimental data. The size distribution of the splashing secondary droplets obeys the gamma distribution function. The average diameter and splashing angle of the secondary droplets are mainly related to the Reynolds number Re, and can be expressed as functions of Re. High impact velocity and liquid viscosity will result in a wider size distribution range of splashing secondary droplets. We also put forward an empirical model to predict the total splashing volume, which is consistent with the experimental data both in this work and previous studies. This work is believed to provide insights on the prediction of the characteristics of splashing secondary droplets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 111 (12) ◽  
pp. 3795-3826
Serguey Braguinsky ◽  
Atsushi Ohyama ◽  
Tetsuji Okazaki ◽  
Chad Syverson

We explore how firms grow by adding products. We leverage detailed data from Japan’s cotton spinning industry at the turn of the last century to do so. This setting allows us to fully characterize the type of differentiation (vertical or horizontal) of new product introductions as well as whether the product is within or outside of the firm’s prior technological capabilities. We find that trying to introduce innovative products beyond the firm’s previous technologically feasible set, even if such trials fail, is a key to firm growth. Indeed, it mostly facilitates growth through the firm’s later success in horizontal product diversification. In long-term outcomes, the right tail of the firm size distribution becomes dominated by firms that first moved into technologically challenging products and then later applied their newly acquired technical competence to horizontal expansion of their product portfolios. Two mechanisms through which this knowledge transfer occurs are greater production system flexibility and higher product appeal to downstream buyers. (JEL D22, L11,L67, N65, N85, O31, O33)

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (23) ◽  
pp. 7983
Qingbing Liu ◽  
Jinge Wang ◽  
Hongwei Zheng ◽  
Tie Hu ◽  
Jie Zheng

This paper presents a model for estimating the moisture of loess from an image grayscale value. A series of well-controlled air-dry tests were performed on saturated Malan loess, and the moisture content of the loess sample during the desiccation process was automatically recorded while the soil images were continually captured using a photogrammetric device equipped with a CMOS image sensor. By converting the red, green, and blue (RGB) image into a grayscale one, the relationship between the water content and grayscale value, referred to as the water content–gray value characteristic curve (WGCC), was obtained; the impacts of dry density, particle size distribution, and illuminance on WGCC were investigated. It is shown that the grayscale value increases as the water content decreases; based on the rate of increase of grayscale value, the WGCC can be segmented into three stages: slow-rise, rapid-rise, and asymptotically stable stages. The influences that dry density and particle size distribution have on WGCC are dependent on light reflection and transmission, and this dependence is closely related to soil water types and their relative proportion. Besides, the WGCC for a given soil sample is unique if normalized with illuminance. The mechanism behind the three stages of WGCC is discussed in terms of visible light reflection. A mathematical model was proposed to describe WGCC, and the physical meaning of the model parameters was interpreted. The proposed model is validated independently using another six different types of loess samples and is shown to match well the experimental data. The results of this study can provide a reference for the development of non-contact soil moisture monitoring methods as well as relevant sensors and instruments.

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