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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 445-460
Qianrong Xiang ◽  
Zhuoxuan Wu ◽  
Er-Kang Tian ◽  
Shiqi Nong ◽  
Wen Liao ◽  

In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have gradually become a major choice of drug delivery cargoes due to unique properties. Compared to traditional bulk solid gold, GNPs have basic physical and chemical advantages, such as a larger surface area-to-volume ratio and easier surface modification. Furthermore, these have excellent biocompatibility, can induce the directional adsorption and enrichment of biological macromolecules, help retain biological macromolecule activity, and cause low harm to the human body. All these make GNPs good drug delivery cargoes. The present study introduces the properties of GNPs, including factors that affect the properties and synthesis. Then, focus was given on the application in drug delivery, not only on the molecular mechanism, but also on the clinical application. Furthermore, the properties and applications of peptide GNPs were also introduced. Finally, the challenges and prospects of GNPs for drug delivery were summarized.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 446
Michał Gębka ◽  
Anna Bajer-Czajkowska ◽  
Sandra Pyza ◽  
Krzysztof Safranow ◽  
Wojciech Poncyljusz ◽  

Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of collaterals on the evolution of hypodensity on non-contrast CT (NCCT) in anterior circulation stroke with reperfusion by mechanical thrombectomy (MT). Methods: We retrospectively included stroke patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion who were reperfused by MT in early and late time window. Artificial intelligence (AI)-based software was used to calculate of hypodensity volumes at baseline NCCT (V1) and at follow-up NCCT 24 h after MT (V2), along with the difference between the two volumes (V2-V1) and the follow-up (V2)/baseline (V1) volume ratio (V2/V1). The same software was used to classify collateral status by using a 4-point scale where the score of zero indicated no collaterals and the score of three represented contrast filling of all collaterals. The volumetric values were correlated with the collateral scores. Results: Collateral scores had significant negative correlation with V1 (p = 0.035), V2, V2− V1 and V2/V1 (p < 0.001). In cases with collateral score = 3, V2 was significantly smaller or absent compared to V1; in those with collateral score 2, V2 was slightly larger than V1, and in those with scores 1 and 0 V2 was significantly larger than V1. These relationships were observed in both early and late time windows. Conclusions: The collateral status determined the evolution of the baseline hypodensity on NCCT in patients with anterior circulation stroke who had MT reperfusion. Damage can be stable or reversible in patients with good collaterals while in those with poor collaterals tissues that initially appear normal will frequently appear as necrotic after 24 h. With good collaterals, it is stable or can be reversible while with poor collaterals, normal looking tissue frequently appears as necrotic in follow-up exam. Hence, acute hypodensity represents different states of the ischemic brain parenchyma.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 557
Sergei I. Stepanov ◽  
Nguyen Thi Yen Hoa ◽  
Ekaterina V. Boyarintseva ◽  
Alexander V. Boyarintsev ◽  
Galina V. Kostikova ◽  

The article presents data on the solvent extraction separation of rare-earth elements (REEs), such as La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), and Nd(III), using synergic mixtures of methyltrioctylammonium nitrate (TOMANO3) with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) from weakly acidic nitrate solutions. Specifically, experimental results on separation of REEs, for the pair Ce(III)/Pr(III) for quaternary mixtures of REEs (La(III), Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III)) and for the pair La(III)/Pr(III) for solutions containing La(III), Pr(III), and Nd(III), are presented. It was shown that effective separation for the pair Ce(III)/Pr(III) from a solution containing 219 g Ce(III)/L, 106 g La(III)/L, 20 g Pr(III)/L, 55 g Nd(III)/L, and 0.1 mol/L HNO3, was achieved using 56 steps of a multistage, counter-current solvent extraction cascade with scrubbing, at an organic-to-aqueous phase volume ratio (O/A) equal to 2/1 on the extraction section and O/A equal to 4/1 on the scrubbing section, using 3.3 mol/L solutions of the mixture TOMANO3-TBP with molar ratio 0.15:0.85 in dodecane. Separation for the pair La(III)/Pr(III) could be achieved using a solvent extraction cascade with scrubbing in 32 steps at O/A equal to 2/1 on the extraction section and O/A equal to 2.8/1 on the scrubbing section of the solvent extraction cascade from a solution containing 258 g La(III)/L, 58 g Pr(III)/L, 141 g Nd(III)/L, and 0.1 mol/L HNO3 with 3.0 mol/L solution of the mixture TOMANO3-TBP with molar ratio 0.2:0.8 in dodecane.

Biosensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 43
Melanie Welden ◽  
Arshak Poghossian ◽  
Farnoosh Vahidpour ◽  
Tim Wendlandt ◽  
Michael Keusgen ◽  

Utilizing an appropriate enzyme immobilization strategy is crucial for designing enzyme-based biosensors. Plant virus-like particles represent ideal nanoscaffolds for an extremely dense and precise immobilization of enzymes, due to their regular shape, high surface-to-volume ratio and high density of surface binding sites. In the present work, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) particles were applied for the co-immobilization of penicillinase and urease onto the gate surface of a field-effect electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor capacitor (EISCAP) with a p-Si-SiO2-Ta2O5 layer structure for the sequential detection of penicillin and urea. The TMV-assisted bi-enzyme EISCAP biosensor exhibited a high urea and penicillin sensitivity of 54 and 85 mV/dec, respectively, in the concentration range of 0.1–3 mM. For comparison, the characteristics of single-enzyme EISCAP biosensors modified with TMV particles immobilized with either penicillinase or urease were also investigated. The surface morphology of the TMV-modified Ta2O5-gate was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the bi-enzyme EISCAP was applied to mimic an XOR (Exclusive OR) enzyme logic gate.

Machines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Chuang Wang ◽  
Bingqi Wang ◽  
Mingkun Liu ◽  
Ziwen Xing

Screw machines, mainly including single-screw type and twin-screw type, have gone through significant development and improvement during the past decade. This paper reviews the relevant studies available in the open literature for acquiring insight into and to establish the state of the art of the research and application status of screw machines. The related research on different aspects, which would affect the performance and reliability of screw machines includes rotor profile and geometric characteristics, thermodynamic modelling, vibration and noise, lubrication and wear, control of capacity and built-in volume ratio, and liquid injection technology. In the aspect of thermodynamic modelling, the available methods, i.e., empirical or semi-empirical model, lump model, and 3D CFD model, adopted for the performance prediction and optimal design of screw machines are summarized. Then, the review covers the application status of screw machines in the fields of air compression and expansion, refrigeration and heat pump, organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and other popular applications, with an emphasis on the reported performance and progress in technologies of screw machines. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research in the area of screw machines are presented. The review provides readers with a good understanding of the research focus and progress in the field of screw machines.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0256194
Shengkun Peng ◽  
Lingai Pan ◽  
Yang Guo ◽  
Bo Gong ◽  
Xiaobo Huang ◽  

Objectives COVID-19 and Non-Covid-19 (NC) Pneumonia encountered high CT imaging overlaps during pandemic. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of image-based quantitative CT features in discriminating COVID-19 from NC Pneumonia. Materials and methods 145 patients with highly suspected COVID-19 were retrospectively enrolled from four centers in Sichuan Province during January 23 to March 23, 2020. 88 cases were confirmed as COVID-19, and 57 patients were NC. The dataset was randomly divided by 3:2 into training and testing sets. The quantitative CT radiomics features were extracted and screened sequentially by correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression (LR) and backward stepwise LR with minimum AIC methods. The selected features were used to construct the LR model for differentiating COVID-19 from NC. Meanwhile, the differentiation performance of traditional quantitative CT features such as lesion volume ratio, ground glass opacity (GGO) or consolidation volume ratio were also considered and compared with Radiomics-based method. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis were conducted to evaluate the predicting performance. Results Compared with traditional CT quantitative features, radiomics features performed best with the highest Area Under Curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the training (0.994, 0.942, 1.0 and 0.965) and testing sets (0.977, 0.944, 0.870, 0.915) (Delong test, P < 0.001). Among CT volume-ratio based models using lesion or GGO component ratio, the model combining CT lesion score and component ratio performed better than others, with the AUC, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.84, 0.692, 0.853, 0.756 in the training set and 0.779, 0.667, 0.826, 0.729 in the testing set. The significant difference of the most selected wavelet transformed radiomics features between COVID-19 and NC might well reflect the CT signs. Conclusions The differentiation between COVID-19 and NC could be well improved by using radiomics features, compared with traditional CT quantitative values.

2022 ◽  
Xin Yu ◽  
Ming-Hui Zhang ◽  
Yan-Hao Huang ◽  
Yu Deng ◽  
You-Zhen Feng ◽  

Abstract Background: Obesity is associated with excessive airway collapse and reduced lung volume; it is unknown whether it affects airway-lung interactions. We sought to compare the airway tree to lung volume ratio, assessed by CT, in obese individuals with and without ventilation disorders.Methods: Participants underwent inspiratory chest CT and pulmonary function. The percentage ratio of the whole airway tree to lung volume, automatically segmented via deep learning, was defined as CT airway volume percent (AWV%). Total airway count (TAC), airway wall area percent (WA%), and other CT indexes were also measured. Results: We evaluated 88 participants including adolescents(age: 14-18, n= 12) and adults (age: 19-25, n= 17; age: 26-35, n= 39; age> 35, n= 20). Obese adolescents had higher forced vital capacity (FVC) (P = 0.001) and lower AWV% (P = 0.008) than obese adults (age >35). Among obese adults, participants with restrictive disorders had larger AWV% (P < 0.001) and those with obstructive disorders showed smaller AWV% (P < 0.001) compared to participants with normal ventilation. AWV% was positively correlated with age and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/FVC and adversely related to FVC (P< 0.05 for all), and in multivariate models, AWV% independently predicted FEV1/FVC (R2 = 0.49, P < 0.001) and FVC (R2 = 0.60, P < 0.001).Conclusion: Transitions in lung function patterns between obese adolescents and adults are associated with airway to lung ratios. The obesity-induced disproportion between the airway tree and lung volume may adversely affect and complicate lung ventilation.

Chunli Wu ◽  
Xiaohao Dong ◽  
Lan Wang ◽  
Lei Zhang ◽  
Xiaotong Liu

Abstract In order to improve the visible light catalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and ensure its long-term stability on the surface of concrete, an N-TiO2/SiO2 composite was prepared using tetrabutyl titanate, nitric acid, and modified SiO2 nanospheres as the precursors by a solvothermal method. The effect of nitric acid on the phase composition, morphology and photoelectric properties of the synthesized photocatalytic composites was systematically studied by various characterization methods. The results show that the optimum nitric acid/butyl titanate volume ratio is 1/6. The nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on the surface of spherical SiO2 with a diameter of 200 nm. The degradation rate of simulated pollutants (RhB) with pH 5 and 7 exceeded 95% within 30 minutes and the catalytic effect remained excellent after five repetitions without much weakening. The excellent visible photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the doping of N replacing part of the oxygen atoms in TiO2, forming the energy level of N 2p at the O 2p energy level and reducing the TiO2 energy band gap to 2.99 eV. At the same time, the better dispersion of N-TiO2/SiO2 prepared by this new synthesis method also plays an important role in the improvement of visible light photocatalytic activity.

2022 ◽  
Natalia A. Luchnikova ◽  
Polina Yu. Maltseva ◽  
Victoria V. Grishko ◽  
Irina B. Ivshina

The ability of actinobacteria of the genus Rhodococcus to transform oleanolic acid (OA), a plant pentacyclic triterpenoid, was shown for the first time using bioresources of the Regional Specialized Collection of AlkanotrophicMicroorganisms (IEGM; WDCM #768;www.iegmcol.ru). The most promising strains (R.opacus IEGM 488 and R.rhodochrousIEGM 285) were selected, and these catalyzed80% bioconversion of OA (0.5 g/L) in the presence of n-hexadecane (0.1% v/v) for seven days. The process of OA bioconversion was accompanied by a gradual decrease in the culture medium pH. Adaptive responses of bacterial cells to the OA effects included the formation of compact cellular aggregates, a marked change in the surface-to-volume ratio of cells, and a significant increase in the Zeta potential values. The results demonstrated that the process of OA bioconversion was catalyzed by membrane-bound enzyme complexes. Participation of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases in the oxidation of the OA moleculewas confirmedusing specific inhibitors. The obtained data expand our knowledge on the catalytic activity of actinobacteria of the genus Rhodococcus and their possible use as biocatalysts for the bioconversion of complex hydrophobic compounds. The results can also be used inthe searchfor promising OA derivatives to be used in the synthesis of biologically active agents. Keywords: bioconversion, oleanolic acid, Rhodococcus, biologically active compounds

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Hui Lu ◽  
Honoka Aida ◽  
Masaomi Kurokawa ◽  
Feng Chen ◽  
Yang Xia ◽  

AbstractThe morphology of primitive cells has been the subject of extensive research. A spherical form was commonly presumed in prebiotic studies but lacked experimental evidence in living cells. Whether and how the shape of living cells changed are unclear. Here we exposed the rod-shaped bacterium Escherichia coli to a resource utilization regime mimicking a primordial environment. Oleate was given as an easy-to-use model prebiotic nutrient, as fatty acid vesicles were likely present on the prebiotic Earth and might have been used as an energy resource. Six evolutionary lineages were generated under glucose-free but oleic acid vesicle (OAV)-rich conditions. Intriguingly, fitness increase was commonly associated with the morphological change from rod to sphere and the decreases in both the size and the area-to-volume ratio of the cell. The changed cell shape was conserved in either OAVs or glucose, regardless of the trade-offs in carbon utilization and protein abundance. Highly differentiated mutations present in the genome revealed two distinct strategies of adaption to OAV-rich conditions, i.e., either directly targeting the cell wall or not. The change in cell morphology of Escherichia coli for adapting to fatty acid availability supports the assumption of the primitive spherical form.

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