Monitoring Spinal Cord Tissue Oxygen in Patients With Acute, Severe Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Ravindran Visagan ◽  
Florence R. A. Hogg ◽  
Mathew J. Gallagher ◽  
Siobhan Kearney ◽  
Argyro Zoumprouli ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 100653
R. Visagan ◽  
A. Zoumprouli ◽  
M.C. Papadopoulos ◽  
S. Saadoun

2019 ◽  
Vol 07 (04) ◽  
pp. 196-206 ◽  
Changke Ma ◽  
Peng Zhang ◽  
Yixin Shen

As with all tissues of the central nervous system, the low regeneration ability of spinal cord tissue after injury decreases the potential for repair and recovery. Initially, in spinal cord injuries (SCI), often the surgeon can only limit further damage by early surgical decompression. However, with the development of basic science, especially the development of genetic engineering, molecular biology, tissue engineering, and materials science, some promising progress has been made in promoting the repair of central nervous system injuries. For example, transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs), olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), and gene- mediated transdifferentiation to repair central nervous system injury. This paper summarizes the progress and prospects of SCI repair with tissue engineering scaffold and cell transdifferentiation from an extensive literatures.

2016 ◽  
Vol 2016 ◽  
pp. 1-9 ◽  
Yu-ping Mo ◽  
Hai-jiang Yao ◽  
Wei Lv ◽  
Liang-yu Song ◽  
Hong-tao Song ◽  

In an effort to explore new, noninvasive treatment options for spinal cord injuries (SCI), this study investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) for SCI rat models. SCI was induced by a modified Allen’s weight-drop method. We investigated the response of EA at Dazhui (GV 14) and Mingmen (GV 4) acupoints to understand the effects and mechanisms of EA in neuroprotection and neuronal function recovery after SCI. BBB testing was used to detect motor function of rats’ hind limbs among groups, and EA was shown to promote the recovery of SCI rats’ motor function. Nissl staining showed a restored neural morphology and an increase in the quantity of neurons after EA. Also, the antiapoptosis role was exposed by TUNEL staining. Western blotting analysis was used to determine the protein expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in spinal cord tissue. Compared to the sham group, the expression levels of NT-3 were significantly decreased and EA was shown to upregulate the expression of NT-3. The present study suggests that the role of EA in neuroprotection and dorsal neuronal function recovery after SCI in rats, especially EA stimulation at GV 14 and GV 4, can greatly promote neuronal function recovery, which may result from upregulating the expression of NT-3.

2020 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Manda Wang ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
Xiao-Ming Xu

Background/Objective:  Spinal cord injuries (SCI) disrupt descending neural pathways that are required for motor function. Among these tracts, the most important for forelimb function is the corticospinal tract (CST). Mature CNS neurons typically fail to regenerate after injury due to an extrinsic inhibitory environment and an intrinsic incapability to grow. After SCI, a major inhibitory component at the lesion site consists of NG2 glial cells. Decreasing the amount of NG2 around the lesion should create a more permissive environment for CST regeneration. We hypothesize that NG2 glial cells at the lesion site can be reprogrammed into functional neurons, which can then facilitate CST regeneration and synapse formation, leading to functional recovery.    Methods:  Dorsal hemisections of the spinal cord at C5 were performed on 29 adult mice in three groups. Reprogramming of glial cells was completed using a Lenti-SOX2 virus. BrdU and AAV8-GFP were administered to each mouse to trace the proliferating cells and CST, respectively. After sacrificing, the spinal cord tissue was harvested, cryosectioned, and mounted on slides. NeuN and BrdU immunofluorescence staining were performed and high-quality images were obtained using a Neurolucida microscope system equipped with fluorescence.     Results:  We successfully stained proliferating cells using BrdU and neurons using NeuN. Imaging collection is carried out in a blinded fashion and is not yet complete. However, initial data on a subset of obtained images have shown signs of CST regenerating through the lesion site rather than retracting from it.     Conclusion/Impact:   Preliminary data suggests that reprogramming of NG2 glial cells into functional neurons is an effective method of promoting CST regeneration after SCI. With the annual incidence of SCI of approximately 17,810 new cases, further studies are required to determine if this approach would promote motor functional recovery and, if so, can be translated to treatments to improve quality of life for those who suffer from SCI. 

2020 ◽  
pp. 0271678X2096185
Yimin Zou

At least two-thirds of spinal cord injury cases are anatomically incomplete, without complete spinal cord transection, although the initial injuries cause complete loss of sensory and motor functions. The malleability of neural circuits and networks allows varied extend of functional restoration in some individuals after successful rehabilitative training. However, in most cases, the efficiency and extent are both limited and uncertain, largely due to the many obstacles of repair. The restoration of function after anatomically incomplete injury is in part made possible by the growth of new axons or new axon branches through the spared spinal cord tissue and the new synaptic connections they make, either along the areas they grow through or in the areas they terminate. This review will discuss new progress on the understanding of the role of axon guidance molecules, particularly the Wnt family proteins, in spinal cord injury and how the knowledge and tools of axon guidance can be applied to increase the potential of recovery. These strategies, combined with others, such as neuroprotection and rehabilitation, may bring new promises. The recovery strategies for anatomically incomplete spinal cord injuries are relevant and may be applicable to traumatic brain injury and stroke.

2015 ◽  
Vol 2015 ◽  
pp. 1-9 ◽  
Ortrud Uckermann ◽  
Roberta Galli ◽  
Rudolf Beiermeister ◽  
Kerim-Hakan Sitoci-Ficici ◽  
Robert Later ◽  

Activation of CNS resident microglia and invasion of external macrophages plays a central role in spinal cord injuries and diseases. Multiphoton microscopy based on intrinsic tissue properties offers the possibility of label-free imaging and has the potential to be applied in vivo. In this work, we analyzed cellular structures displaying endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) in the pathologic spinal cord. It was compared qualitatively and quantitatively to Iba1 and CD68 immunohistochemical staining in two models: rat spinal cord injury and mouse encephalomyelitis. The extent of tissue damage was retrieved by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation imaging. The pattern of CD68-positive cells representing postinjury activated microglia/macrophages was colocalized to the TPEF signal. Iba1-positive microglia were found in areas lacking any TPEF signal. In peripheral areas of inflammation, we found similar numbers of CD68-positive microglia/macrophages and TPEF-positive structures while the number of Iba1-positive cells was significantly higher. Therefore, we conclude that multiphoton imaging of unstained spinal cord tissue enables retrieving the extent of microglia activation by acquisition of endogenous TPEF. Future application of this technique in vivo will enable monitoring inflammatory responses of the nervous system allowing new insights into degenerative and regenerative processes.

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