glial cells
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2022 ◽  
Vol 33 (1) ◽  
pp. 86-87
Francesco Petrelli ◽  
Marlen Knobloch ◽  
Francesca Amati

Werend Boesmans ◽  
Amelia Nash ◽  
Kinga R. Tasnády ◽  
Wendy Yang ◽  
Lincon A. Stamp ◽  

Enteric glia are a fascinating population of cells. Initially identified in the gut wall as the “support” cells of the enteric nervous system, studies over the past 20 years have unveiled a vast array of functions carried out by enteric glia. They mediate enteric nervous system signalling and play a vital role in the local regulation of gut functions. Enteric glial cells interact with other gastrointestinal cell types such as those of the epithelium and immune system to preserve homeostasis, and are perceptive to luminal content. Their functional versatility and phenotypic heterogeneity are mirrored by an extensive level of plasticity, illustrated by their reactivity in conditions associated with enteric nervous system dysfunction and disease. As one of the hallmarks of their plasticity and extending their operative relationship with enteric neurons, enteric glia also display neurogenic potential. In this review, we focus on the development of enteric glial cells, and the mechanisms behind their heterogeneity in the adult gut. In addition, we discuss what is currently known about the role of enteric glia as neural precursors in the enteric nervous system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 960
Jean-Denis Troadec ◽  
Stéphanie Gaigé ◽  
Manon Barbot ◽  
Bruno Lebrun ◽  
Rym Barbouche ◽  

The avoidance of being overweight or obese is a daily challenge for a growing number of people. The growing proportion of people suffering from a nutritional imbalance in many parts of the world exemplifies this challenge and emphasizes the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate nutritional balance. Until recently, research on the central regulation of food intake primarily focused on neuronal signaling, with little attention paid to the role of glial cells. Over the last few decades, our understanding of glial cells has changed dramatically. These cells are increasingly regarded as important neuronal partners, contributing not just to cerebral homeostasis, but also to cerebral signaling. Our understanding of the central regulation of energy balance is part of this (r)evolution. Evidence is accumulating that glial cells play a dynamic role in the modulation of energy balance. In the present review, we summarize recent data indicating that the multifaceted glial compartment of the brainstem dorsal vagal complex (DVC) should be considered in research aimed at identifying feeding-related processes operating at this level.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 295
Mei-Chuan Chou ◽  
Hsiang-Chun Lee ◽  
Yen-Chin Liu ◽  
Patrick Szu-Ying Yen ◽  
Ching-Kuan Liu ◽  

Epidemiologic studies have indicated that dyslipidemia may facilitate the progression of neuronal degeneration. However, the effects of chronic dyslipidemia on brain function, especially in older individuals, remain unclear. In this study, middle-aged 37-week-old male Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 30 weeks (i.e., until 67 weeks of age). To study the effects of chronic dyslipidemia on the brain, we analyzed spontaneous locomotor activity, cognitive function, and brain tissues in both groups of rats after 30 weeks. Compared with age-matched rats fed a ND, Wistar-Kyoto rats fed a HFD had dyslipidemia and showed decreased movement but normal recognition of a novel object. In our brain analyses, we observed a significant decrease in astrocytes and tyrosine hydroxylase–containing neurons in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus of rats fed a HFD compared with rats fed a ND. However, hippocampal pyramidal neurons were not affected. Our findings indicate that the long-term consumption of a HFD may cause lipid metabolism overload in the brain and damage to glial cells. The decrease in astrocytes may lead to reduced protection of the brain and affect the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase–containing neurons but not pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Alison Xiaoqiao Xie ◽  
Sarah Taves ◽  
Ken McCarthy

Chronic neuropathic pain leads to long-term changes in the sensitivity of both peripheral and central nociceptive neurons. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive glial cells are closely associated with the nociceptive neurons including astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), satellite glial cells (SGCs) in the sensory ganglia, and non-myelinating Schwann cells (NMSCs) in the peripheral nerves. Central and peripheral GFAP-positive cells are involved in the maintenance of chronic pain through a host of inflammatory cytokines, many of which are under control of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). To test the hypothesis that inhibiting GFAP-positive glial signaling alleviates chronic pain, we used (1) a conditional knockout (cKO) mouse expressing Cre recombinase under the hGFAP promoter and a floxed COX2 gene to inactivate the COX2 gene specifically in GFAP-positive cells; and (2) a tet-Off tetracycline transactivator system to suppress NFκB activation in GFAP-positive cells. We found that neuropathic pain behavior following spared nerve injury (SNI) significantly decreased in COX2 cKO mice as well as in mice with decreased glial NFκB signaling. Additionally, experiments were performed to determine whether central or peripheral glial NFκB signaling contributes to the maintenance of chronic pain behavior following nerve injury. Oxytetracycline (Oxy), a blood-brain barrier impermeable analog of doxycycline was employed to restrict transgene expression to CNS glia only, leaving peripheral glial signaling intact. Signaling inactivation in central GFAP-positive glia alone failed to exhibit the same analgesic effects as previously observed in animals with both central and peripheral glial signaling inhibition. These data suggest that the NFκB-COX2 signaling pathway in NMSCs is necessary for the maintenance of neuropathic pain in vivo.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Alexandra Proshchina ◽  
Victoria Gulimova ◽  
Anastasia Kharlamova ◽  
Yuliya Krivova ◽  
Valeriy Barabanov ◽  

Spaceflight may cause hypogravitational motor syndrome (HMS). However, the role of the nervous system in the formation of HMS remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of space flights on the cytoskeleton of the neuronal and glial cells in the spinal cord and mechanoreceptors in the toes of thick-toed geckos (Chondrodactylus turneri GRAY, 1864). Thick-toed geckos are able to maintain attachment and natural locomotion in weightlessness. Different types of mechanoreceptors have been described in the toes of geckos. After flight, neurofilament 200 immunoreactivity in mechanoreceptors was lower than in control. In some motor neurons of flight geckos, nonspecific pathomorphological changes were observed, but they were also detected in the control. No signs of gliosis were detected after spaceflight. Cytoskeleton markers adequately reflect changes in the cells of the nervous system. We suggest that geckos’ adhesion is controlled by the nervous system. Our study revealed no significant disturbances in the morphology of the spinal cord after the prolonged space flight, supporting the hypothesis that geckos compensate the alterations, characteristic for other mammals in weightlessness, by tactile stimulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Yuan-Bo Pan ◽  
Yiyu Sun ◽  
Hong-Jiang Li ◽  
Lai-Yang Zhou ◽  
Jianmin Zhang ◽  

The function of glial cells in axonal regeneration after injury has been the subject of controversy in recent years. Thus, deeper insight into glial cells is urgently needed. Many studies on glial cells have elucidated the mechanisms of a certain gene or cell type in axon regeneration. However, studies that manipulate a single variable may overlook other changes. Here, we performed a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of the optic nerve head over a period of 90 days after optic nerve crush (ONC), showing systematic molecular changes in the optic nerve head (ONH). Furthermore, using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene module programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times post-ONC and found hub genes that may be potential therapeutic targets. In addition, we analyzed the changes in different glial cells based on their subtype markers. We revealed that the transition trend of different glial cells depended on the time course, which provides clues for modulating glial function in further research.

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