Nervous System
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Krissy A. Lyon ◽  
Nicola J. Allen

Astrocytes are non-neuronal cells that regulate synapses, neuronal circuits, and behavior. Astrocytes ensheath neuronal synapses to form the tripartite synapse where astrocytes influence synapse formation, function, and plasticity. Beyond the synapse, recent research has revealed that astrocyte influences on the nervous system extend to the modulation of neuronal circuitry and behavior. Here we review recent findings on the active role of astrocytes in behavioral modulation with a focus on in vivo studies, primarily in mice. Using tools to acutely manipulate astrocytes, such as optogenetics or chemogenetics, studies reviewed here have demonstrated a causal role for astrocytes in sleep, memory, sensorimotor behaviors, feeding, fear, anxiety, and cognitive processes like attention and behavioral flexibility. Current tools and future directions for astrocyte-specific manipulation, including methods for probing astrocyte heterogeneity, are discussed. Understanding the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal circuit activity and organismal behavior will be critical toward understanding how nervous system function gives rise to behavior.

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 130-136
Steve S. Saitoh ◽  
Shogo Tanabe ◽  
Rieko Muramatsu

J Fuchs ◽  
A Bockay ◽  
T Liptak ◽  
V Ledecky ◽  
M Kuricova

Electromyography (EMG) is a sophisticated electrodiagnostic-neurophysiological method, which serves to diagnose neuromuscular system diseases. It is based on the measurement of the electrical potentials created by the skeletal muscle activity. For this technique, surface electrodes and needle electrodes can be used, which read the action potential of a large number of motor units and read a small number of motor units, respectively. The wide-spectrum application of this method extends our diagnostic possibilities of the clinical examination in veterinary practice. Together with a clinical neurological examination and imaging methods, EMG forms a part of the diagnosis of nervous system diseases and it is a useful diagnostic technique for differentiating neuropathies, junctionopathies, and myopathies. The results of the neurophysiological examination inform us about the functional state of the peripheral and central nervous system; it can demonstrate subclinical diseases and monitor the dynamics of changes in the functional state of individual nervous systems over time. In this article, we review the electromyographic method and its use in veterinary practice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 292-294
Aarti Chopra ◽  
Ravi Kumar ◽  
Girendra Kumar Gautam

Motor neuron diseases are a group of chronic sporadic and hereditary neurological disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons. These might affect the upper motor neurons, lower motor neurons, or both. The prognosis of the motor neuron disease depends upon the age at onset and the area of the central nervous system affected. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been documented to be fatal within three years of onset. This activity focuses on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as the prototype of MND, which affects both the upper and the lower motor neurons and discusses the role of inter-professional team in the differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, and prognostication. It also discusses various other phenotypes of MND with an emphasis on their distinguishing features in requisite detail.

Tamer Roushdy ◽  
Nouran K. Sharaf

Abstract Background Corona virus disease of the year 2019 (COVID-19) is still devastating the world for more than 19 months since its declaration as a pandemic by world health organization. Its manifestations does not stand at respiratory system but involves other body systems including central nervous system and its vasculature. In the following case report, cerebral venous and arterial thrombosis is detected in a case just in convalescence from COVID-19 with still detected positive IgM. Case presentation A 68-year-old female presenting with disturbed conscious level, bilateral convergent squint, single attack of generalized seizures, left sided dense weakness within a short time from catching COVID-19 and while still in quarantine hospital in recovery phase from infection. Magnetic resonance studies revealed bilateral cortical border zone infarcts as well as left lateral dural sinus and deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion Along the forth wave, COVID-19 is still hitting hardly the central nervous system vasculature.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 118
Mateusz Kamil Ożóg ◽  
Beniamin Oskar Grabarek ◽  
Magdalena Wierzbik-Strońska ◽  
Magdalena Świder

In the available literature, little attention has been paid to the assessment of psoriasis and the biological therapy used for it and the nervous system. The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationship between psoriasis and the nervous system as well as to analyze the mechanisms that lead to neurological complications during anticytokine therapies in psoriasis. However, this connection requires further analysis. The use of biological drugs in psoriasis, although it yields positive therapeutic results, is not without numerous side effects. Serious neurological side effects of the therapy are most often visible with the use of anti-TNF-alpha, which is why patients should be monitored for their potential occurrence. Early detection of complications and rapid discontinuation of treatment with the drug may potentially increase the patient’s chances of a full recovery or improvement of his/her neurological condition. It also seems reasonable that, in the case of complications occurring during anti-TNF-alpha therapy, some of the drugs from other groups should be included in the therapy.

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