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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 841-847
Meijiao Du ◽  
Zhengmei Wang ◽  
Geng Su ◽  
Yunxia Zhou ◽  
Chuan Luo

This study aims to analyze the role of mTOR inhibitor on the expression of miR-211 in rat brain tissue and the biological effect of miR-211 in attenuating seizure. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, and the number of seizures and the duration of single seizure were observed within 24 hours after intervention. The level of miR-211 in brain tissue was detected by RT qPCR, the apoptosis of nerve cells was assessed by TUNEL staining, the level of immune cells was detected by flow cytometry, and the level of serum inflammatory factors was determined by ELISA. The number of seizures and the duration of single seizure in the three groups treated by rapamycin within 24 hours were lower than those in the control group, and the symptom relief in group C was the best. After treatment, the expression level of miR-211 in the brain tissue of epileptic rats increased. TUNEL staining showed that neuronal apoptosis was obvious in epileptic rats. The anti apoptotic ability of group C was the most significant, followed by group D and group B. Compared with group A, the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells in brain tissue of group C were decreased, while the levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were lower in group C than those in control. In group C (n = 5), the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells were elevated, and the levels of immune related cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ were higher than those of rats without miR-211 inhibition. mTOR inhibitors can improve the local immune microenvironment, reduce the release of inflammatory factors, and finally decrease the frequency and duration of seizures by up regulating the level of miR-211 in rat brain tissue.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 602-608
Wuping Yao ◽  
Yuji Li ◽  
Zhi Liu ◽  
Liuyi Yao ◽  
Rui Liang ◽  

Our study assesses the role of a scaffold constructed by co-culture of autologous oxygen-releasing biomimetic scaffold (AONS) and chondrocytes in joint repair after trauma. A composite scaffold structure was used and a scaffold constructed of AONS and chondrocytes was transplanted into SD rats to create models of patellar cartilage fracture and hip osteochondral fracture, respectively followed by analysis of cell proliferation by immunofluorescence method, osteogenesis-related gene expression by RT-PCR, chondrocytes apoptosis by TUNEL staining. The blank control group and AONS composite chondrocytes have significant differences in apoptosis and cell proliferation of two fracture types (P <0.05). The autologous oxygen-releasing nanometers at 4 and 8 weeks showed a significant difference in the number of PCNA and TUNEL cells between biomimetic scaffold and chondrocytes in two groups (P < 0.05). The AONS and chondrocytes were effective for two types of fractures at 1, 4 and 8 weeks. The expression of various markers of intrachondral osteogenesis was decreased and the markers of hip osteochondral fracture were increased significantly (P < 0.05). Joint recovery was better than patellar cartilage fractures. The AONS composite chondrocyte scaffold promotes repair of patellar cartilage fractures and hip osteochondral fractures with a better effect on hip osteochondral fractures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 248-257
Ying Xie ◽  
Shan Tian

We aimed to explore the mechanism by how microRNA (miRNA)-325 derived from marrow mesenchymal stem cell exosomes (MSC-exos) affects the trophoblast progression in preeclampsia (PE). RT-qPCR detected the level of miRNA let-7b and FOXO1 in the placenta tissue of PE patients. Functional experiment was performed to analyze the effect of FOXO1 inhibitor and let-7b mimics on cell migration, invasion and apoptosis through Transwell assay and TUNEL staining. The trophoblast cell was co-cultured with overexpressed-miR-325 MSC-exos to measure gene expression and cell progression. let-7b was highly and FOXO1 was lowly expressed in PE placenta tissue. let-7b directly targeted and inhibited FOXO1 expression. Importantly, as miR-325 was internalized by trophoblast cells through MSC-exos, MSC-exos overexpressing miR-325 inhibited let-7b expression in trophoblasts, up-regulated FOXO1 and activated AKT signaling pathway. Further, MSC-exos treatment promoted invasion and migration of trophoblast cell and inhibited apoptosis. In conclusion, miR-325 derived from MSC-exos promotes the invasion and migration of trophoblast cells in PE through inhibition of let7b and upregulation of FOXO1.

Shaosong Xi ◽  
Yunguang Wang ◽  
Chenghao Wu ◽  
Weihua Peng ◽  
Ying Zhu ◽  

BackgroundGut–microbiota–brain axis links the relationship between intestinal microbiota and sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). However, the key mediators between them remain unclear.MethodsMemory test was determined by Water maze. Intestinal flora was measured by 16S RNA sequencing. Neurotransmitter was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histopathology was determined by H&amp;E, immunofluorescence (IF), and terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Flow cytometry was employed to determine the proportion of macrophages.ResultsFecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) relieved hippocampus impairment of SAE rats by inhibiting inflammation cytokine secretion, the expression of IBA-1 and neurotransmitter disturbance, and cell apoptosis and autophagy, accompanied by the reduced M1 polarization and M1 pro-inflammation factors produced by macrophages in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Actually, M1 polarization in SAE rats depended on intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-derived exosome. GW4869-initiated inhibition of exosome secretion notably abolished M1 polarization and the secretion of IL-1β. However, GW4869-mediated improvement of hippocampus impairment was counteracted by the delivery of recombinant interleukin (IL)-1β to hippocampus. Mechanistically, IEC-derived exosome induced the excessive circulating IL-1β produced by CP-R048 macrophages, which subsequently induced damage and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons H19-7 in an autophagy-dependent manner. And reactivation of autophagy facilitates intestinal IL-1β-mediated hippocampal neuron injury.ConclusionCollectively, intestinal flora disturbance induced the exosome release of IECs, which subsequently caused M1 polarization in MLNs and the accumulation of circulating IL-1β. Circulating IL-1β promoted the damage and apoptosis of neurons in an autophagy-dependent manner. Possibly, targeting intestinal flora or IEC-derived exosome contributes to the treatment of SAE.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Xing Xie

Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of A20 and how A20 is regulated in viral myocarditis (VMC). Methods BABL/C mice, primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells were infected with Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) to establish animal and cellular models of VMC. H&E staining revealed the pathologic condition of myocardium. ELISA measured the serum levels of creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme and cardiac troponin I. The effects of A20, miR-1a-3p and ADAR1 were investigated using gain and loss of function approaches. ELISA measured the levels of IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α in serum or cell culture supernatant. TUNEL staining and flow cytometry assessed the apoptosis of myocardium and cardiomyocytes, respectively. RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation and dual-luciferase reporter assays verified the binding between A20 and miR-1a-3p. Co-immunoprecipitation assay verified the binding between ADAR1 and Dicer. Results A20 was underexpressed and miR-1a-3p was overexpressed in the myocardium of VMC mice as well as in CVB3-infected cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of A20 suppressed cardiomyocyte inflammation and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. miR-1a-3p promoted CVB3-induced inflammation and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by binding to A20. The expression of miR-1a-3p was regulated by ADAR1. ADAR1 promoted the slicing of miR-1a-3p precursor by binding to Dicer. Conclusion A20, regulated by ADAR1/miR-1a-3p, suppresses inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in VMC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 293-299
Xueliang Gao ◽  
Zhao Wang ◽  
Peilei Jia ◽  
Yapeng Zhao ◽  
Kai Wang ◽  

Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of Crataegus songarica extract (CSCE) against traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats, and the underlying mechanism of action. Methods: A rat model of TBI was established via tracheal intubation procedure, and the rats were treated with graded doses of CSCE. Neuronal survival was determined by Nissl staining, while neuronal apoptosis was measured using TUNEL-staining. Neurological impairments were determined based on neurological severity score (NSS). Results: Treatment of TBI rats with CSCE enhanced neuronal survival and decreased TUNEL-positive cell fraction in the brain cortex. The treatment prevented elevation of NSS and suppressed mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in brain cortex. Moreover, CSCE treatment prevented TBI-mediated suppression of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in TBI rat brain cortex. Treatment of TBI rats with CSCE down-regulated NF-κB expression, increased Nrf2 expression and up-regulated mRNA expressions of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1). Conclusion: These results suggest that CSCE prevents TBI-mediated reduction in neuronal survival and inhibits brain cortical neuronal death in rats. It improves NSS and inhibits inflammatory response via activation of Nrf2 pathway and targeting of NF-κB expression. Therefore, CSCE is a potential therapeutic agent for TBI.

2022 ◽  
Vol 66 (1) ◽  
Rong Tian ◽  
Gengsheng Mao

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Ghrelin on the polarization of microglia/ macrophages after cerebral ischemia (CI) in rats. 60 wild-type SD rats were randomly divided into sham group, CI group, CI+Ghrelin group, 20 rats in each group. The modified Longa suture method was used to establish the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. Before surgery, Ghrelin was injected subcutaneously (100μg/kg, twice a day) for 4 consecutive weeks. After modeling, neurological function scores were performed with three behavioral experiments: mNSS score, Corner test, and Rotarod test, to evaluate the recovery of neurological function after Ghrelin treatment. At the same time, the brain tissues were collected and stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to detect the cerebral infarct volume. RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the ischemic brain tissue, and the TUNEL staining was used to detect the apoptosis of brain tissue. Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of M1 type microglia/macrophages which were isolated by trypsin digestion of fresh cerebral cortex. Then, the Western blotting and immunofluorescence method were used to detect the phosphorylation level of AKT (P-AKT) and AKT. Compared with the CI group, the neurological function of the rats in the CI+Ghrelin group was dramatically improved, and the cerebral infarction area was dramatically reduced. At the same time, the expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the ischemic brain tissue of rats in the CI+Ghrelin group decreased, and the apoptotic cells in the brain tissue also decreased. Compared with the CI treatment group, the activation of M1 microglia/macrophages in the cortex of the ischemic side of the infarct and the peri-infarct area in the CI+Ghrelin group was dramatically inhibited. At the same time, the ratio of P-AKT/AKT of the brain tissue in the CI+Ghrelin group was dramatically higher than that of the CI group. In the rat cerebral ischemia model, Ghrelin can promote the repair of brain damage and the recovery of neurological function after ischemia. Its mechanism may be related to activating AKT to selectively reduce M1 microglia/macrophages, reducing inflammation and cell apoptosis in brain tissue.

Pharmacology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Huihui Hu ◽  
Caipeng Xie ◽  
Zeping Weng ◽  
Pei Yu ◽  
Yuqiang Wang ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antitumor agent, has been widely used against various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. However, the clinical application of DOX is restricted by its multiple organ toxicity including nephrotoxicity. This study investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of dexrazoxane (DZR) against DOX-induced nephropathy in rats. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Male Sprague Dawley rats received 2.5 mg/kg DOX once a week for 5 consecutive weeks. 24-h urinary protein and renal function injury biomarkers were determined to evaluate the renal function. Histopathological changes and glomerulosclerosis were examined by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining. The change of renal ultrastructure in the DOX-induced rats was observed by the electron microscopy. The renal apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining and measured the protein expression of Caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax. Renal interstitial fibrosis was determined by Masson staining and immunohistochemistry examination. The levels of vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in kidney tissue were detected by Western blot. <b><i>Results:</i></b> DZR pretreatment markedly raised the survival rate and improved the renal dysfunction in DOX-treated rats. DZR ameliorated DOX-induced histopathological lesion of glomerular and tubular and apoptosis. DZR restored the oxidant/antioxidant balance via regulating the levels of MDA, SOD, and TAC. DZR reduced DOX-induced collagen IV deposition and renal interstitial fibrosis and downregulated the fibrosis-related protein expressions of vimentin, α-SMA, and TGF-β1. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our results suggest DZR exerted its protective effects against DOX-induced nephropathy through inhibition of lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and fibrosis.

2022 ◽  
Xin Yao ◽  
Yujie Cao ◽  
Li Lu ◽  
Yuanxia Xu ◽  
Hao Chen ◽  

Abstract Background: Colon cancer is a common gastrointestinal tumor with a poor prognosis, which makes it urgent to explore new therapeutic strategies. The anti-tumor effect of Plasmodium infection has been reported in some murine models, but it is not clear whether it has an anti-colon cancer effect. In this study, we investigated the anti-colon cancer effect of Plasmodium infection and its related mechanisms using a mouse model of colon cancer.Methods: An experimental model was established by intraperitoneal injection of Plasmodium yoelii-infected erythrocytes into mice with colon cancer. The size of tumors was observed dynamically in mice, and the expression of Ki67 detected by immunohistochemistry was to analyze tumor cells proliferation. Apoptosis was assessed by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining, and the expression of apoptosis concerned proteins, including Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-9, Cleaved Caspase-3, were detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the ultrastructural change of colon cancer cells. And the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis correlative central protein, PGC-1α, and mitophagy relevant crucial proteins, PINK1/Parkin, were detected by western blot. Results: We found that Plasmodium infection reduced the weights and sizes of tumors and decreased the expression of Ki67 in colon cancer-bearing mice. Furthermore, Plasmodium infection promoted mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells, as evidenced by the increased proportion of TUNEL-positive cells, the up-regulated expression of Bax, Caspase-9, and Cleaved Caspase-3 proteins, and the down-regulated expression of Bcl-2 protein. In colon cancer cells, we found destroyed nucleus, swollen mitochondria, missing cristae, and the decreased number of autolysosomes. In addition, Plasmodium infection disturbed mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy through the reduced expression of PGC-1α, PINK1, and Parkin proteins in colon cancer tissues.Conclusions: Plasmodium infection can play an anti-colon cancer role in mice by inhibiting proliferation and promoting mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells, which may relate to mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy.

2022 ◽  
Hong Shen ◽  
Hui Song ◽  
Songlin Wang ◽  
Daojing Su ◽  
Qiang Sun

Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease. The aim of our study is to explore the role and regulatory mechanism of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NEAT1 in the MPP+-induced neuron pyroptosis. The levels of miR-5047 and YAF2 mRNA were determined through qRT-PCR. TUNEL staining was carried out to analyze neuronal apoptosis. Luciferase activity assay was accomplished to analyze the combination of miR-5047 and NEAT1 and YAF2 3’-UTR. Besides, the concentrations of IL-1β and IL-18 in supernatant were analyzed by ELISA assay. The levels of protein were examined through Western blot. NEAT1 and YAF2 expression were increased, while miR-5047 level was declined in the SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+. NEAT1 was a positively regulator for the SH-SY5Y cells pyroptosis induced by MPP+. In addition, YAF2 was a downstream target of miR-5047. NEAT1 promoted YAF2 expression via inhibiting miR-5047. Importantly, the promotion of NEAT1 to SH-SY5Y cells pyroptosis induced by MPP+ was recused by miR-5047 mimic transfection and YAF2 downregulation. In conclusion, NEAT1 was increased in the SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+, and it promoted the MPP+-induced pyroptosis through facilitating YAF2 expression by sponging miR-5047.

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