central nervous system
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Andreia Fuentes Santos ◽  
Marilia Moraes Queiroz Souza ◽  
Karoline Bach Pauli ◽  
Gustavo Ratti da Silva ◽  

Bacopa monnieri(L.) Wettst. (Plantaginaceae), also known as Brahmi, has been used to improve cognitive processes and intellectual functions that are related to the preservation of memory. The objective of this research is to review the ethnobotanical applications, phytochemical composition, toxicity and activity of B. monnieriin the central nervous system. It reviewed articles on B. monnieriusing Google Scholar, SciELO, Science Direct, Lilacs, Medline, and PubMed. Saponins are the main compounds in extracts of B. monnieri. Pharmacological studies showed that B. monnieriimproves learning and memory and presents biological effects against Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. No preclinical acute toxicity was reported. However, gastrointestinal side effects were reported in some healthy elderly individuals. Most studies with B. monnierihave been preclinical evaluations of cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system and further translational clinical research needs to be performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the plant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 130-136
Steve S. Saitoh ◽  
Shogo Tanabe ◽  
Rieko Muramatsu

2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
pp. 147-159
Ugonma Chukwueke ◽  
Christian Grommes ◽  
Lakshmi Nayak

2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-42
Stephen S. Francis ◽  
Quinn T. Ostrom ◽  
David J. Cote ◽  
Timothy R. Smith ◽  
Elizabeth Claus ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
pp. 237-252
Catherine Flores ◽  
Gavin Dunn ◽  
Peter Fecci ◽  
Michael Lim ◽  
Duane Mitchell ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Toshiyuki Fujita ◽  
Naoya Aoki ◽  
Chihiro Mori ◽  
Eiko Fujita ◽  
Toshiya Matsushima ◽  

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a phylogenetically conserved modulatory neurotransmitter. In mammals, 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of many mental states and the processing of emotions in the central nervous system. Serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system, including the dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei, are spatially clustered in the brainstem and provide ascending innervation to the entire forebrain and midbrain. Both between and within the DR and MR, these serotonergic neurons have different cellular characteristics, developmental origin, connectivity, physiology, and related behavioral functions. Recently, an understanding of the heterogeneity of the DR and MR serotonergic neurons has been developed at the molecular level. In birds, emotion-related behavior is suggested to be modulated by the 5-HT system. However, correspondence between the raphe nuclei of birds and mammals, as well as the cellular heterogeneity in the serotonergic neurons of birds are poorly understood. To further understand the heterogeneity of serotonergic neurons in birds, we performed a molecular dissection of the chick brainstem using in situ hybridization. In this study, we prepared RNA probes for chick orthologs of the following serotonin receptor genes: 5-HTR1A, 5-HTR1B, 5-HTR1D, 5-HTR1E, 5-HTR1F, 5-HTR2A, 5-HTR2B, 5-HTR2C, 5-HTR3A, 5-HTR4, 5-HTR5A, and 5-HTR7. We showed that the expression pattern of 5-HT receptors in the serotonin neurons of chick DR and MR may vary, suggesting heterogeneity among and within the serotonin neurons of the DR and MR in the chick brainstem. Our findings regarding the molecular properties of serotonergic neurons in the bird raphe system will facilitate a good understanding of the correspondence between bird and mammalian raphes.

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