Central Nervous System
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2022 ◽  
Vol 145 ◽  
pp. 112458
Author(s):  
Mingan Li ◽  
Lin Zhou ◽  
Xiaohui Sun ◽  
Yunqi Yang ◽  
Ce Zhang ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Author(s):  
Júlia Gabriela Wronski ◽  
Fernando Froner Argenta ◽  
Regina Tose Kemper ◽  
Jacqueline Raiter ◽  
Natasha Rossoni de Oliveira ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT: Multiple congenital malformations can occur concomitantly in several species since the anomaly in one organ may lead directly to the malformation of another. Additionally, the etiology is not always clarified. Choristoma refers to an ectopic tissue that is histologically normal in an abnormal location. A case of pulmonary and nodal choristoma associated with cranioschisis, hydrocephalus, and syringomyelia in a new-born calf is reported here. Clinically, the calf had a mass in the frontal region of the head associated with local bone deformation. At necropsy, there was cranioschisis in the junction of the frontal bones and a 14 × 10 × 7 cm mass, grossly consistent with well-differentiated pulmonary tissue covered by skin, covering the opening between the frontal bones, and extending into the cranial cavity, leading to local cerebral compression. With the pulmonary choristoma, there was a well-differentiated lymphoid tissue. Additionally, in the central nervous system, there was severe hydrocephalus involving lateral ventricles and multiple areas of syringomyelia in the spinal cord.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Aimie L Peek ◽  
Trudy J Rebbeck ◽  
Andrew M Leaver ◽  
Nicolaas Puts ◽  
Sheryl Foster ◽  
...  

Background: The aim of this guideline is to provide a series of evidence-based recommendations that allow those new to the field of MEGA-PRESS to produce high-quality data for the measurement of GABA levels using edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy with the MEGA-PRESS sequence at 3T. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system and has been increasingly studied due to its relevance in many clinical disorders of the central nervous system. MEGA-PRESS is the most widely used method for quantification of GABA at 3T, but is technically challenging and operates at a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the acquisition of high-quality MRS data relies on avoiding numerous pitfalls and observing important caveats. Methods: The guideline was developed by a working party that consisted of experts in MRS and experts in guideline development and implementation, together with key stakeholders. Strictly following a translational framework, we first identified evidence using a systematically conducted scoping literature review, then synthesised and graded the quality of evidence that formed recommendations. These recommendations were then sent to a panel of 21 world leaders in MRS for feedback and approval using a modified-Delphi process across two rounds. Results: The final guideline consists of 23 recommendations across six domains essential for GABA MRS acquisition (Parameters, Practicalities, Data acquisition, Confounders, Quality/reporting, Post-processing). Overall, 78% of recommendations were formed from high-quality evidence, and 91% received agreement from over 80% of the expert panel. Conclusion: These 23 expert-reviewed recommendations and accompanying extended documentation form a readily usable guideline to allow those new to the field of MEGA-PRESS to design appropriate MEGA-PRESS study protocols and generate high-quality data.


Author(s):  
M Ozkaraca ◽  
S Ozdemir ◽  
S Comakli ◽  
MO Timurkan

The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of apoptosis and autophagy in animals (cows, horses, donkeys, dogs and cats) naturally infected with rabies by using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and qPCR. The mRNA transcript levels of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl2 and LC3B were determined with qPCR. Caspase-3 and AIF immunopositivity were not observed in the immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining, whereas LC3B immunopositivity was determined intensively in the infected animals compared to the control groups. LC3B immunopositivity was detected in the cytoplasm of the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum of the cows, horses and donkeys, and also in the cytoplasm of the neurons in the cornu ammonis of the dogs and cats. While the expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax were downregulated, the Bcl2 expression was up-regulated in the infected animals compared to the uninfected animals. In addition, the LC3B levels were found to be significantly higher in the infected animals. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first report of neuronal death in the central nervous system by autophagy, rather than by caspase-dependent or AIF-containing caspase-independent apoptosis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 46 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sapana Sharma ◽  
Harsha Jagadeesh ◽  
Ambrish Saxena ◽  
Harshini Chakravarthy ◽  
Vasudharani Devanathan

Author(s):  
Alexandra M. Nicaise ◽  
Andrea D’Angelo ◽  
Rosana-Bristena Ionescu ◽  
Grzegorz Krzak ◽  
Cory M. Willis ◽  
...  

AbstractGlial scars are a common pathological occurrence in a variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and injuries. They are caused after severe damage and consist of reactive glia that form a barrier around the damaged tissue that leads to a non-permissive microenvironment which prevents proper endogenous regeneration. While there are a number of therapies that are able to address some components of disease, there are none that provide regenerative properties. Within the past decade, neural stem cells (NSCs) have been heavily studied due to their potent anti-inflammatory and reparative capabilities in disease and injury. Exogenously applied NSCs have been found to aid in glial scar healing by reducing inflammation and providing cell replacement. However, endogenous NSCs have also been found to contribute to the reactive environment by different means. Further understanding how NSCs can be leveraged to aid in the resolution of the glial scar is imperative in the use of these cells as regenerative therapies. To do so, humanised 3D model systems have been developed to study the development and maintenance of the glial scar. Herein, we explore the current work on endogenous and exogenous NSCs in the glial scar as well as the novel 3D stem cell–based technologies being used to model this pathology in a dish.


Author(s):  
Nitish Baisakhiya ◽  
Sujata Maini ◽  
Kartikey Pandey

<p class="abstract">Cysticercosis is a major public health problem especially in developing countries like ours. Disease can be prevented by increasing the public awareness about personal hygiene and sanitation. The disease commonly affects the central nervous system and the condition is referred to as neurocysticercosis. Neurocysticercosis is probably is the commonest parasitic infestation of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the extracranial involvement is exceedingly rare. The head and neck regions commonly affected are tongue, sternocleidomastoid muscle, masseter muscle and strap muscles of the neck. Isolated cases of cysticercosis have been reported in the literature in head and neck region. We are reporting the case series of seven cases of extracranial cysticercosis presenting in different parts of head neck region. Two cases presented with a tongue nodule, two cases in the region of masseter muscle, one case in the pre-maxillary region and one in the sternocleidomastiod muscle in the neck. All cases were dealt with a clinical suspicion of cysticercosis as the condition is endemic in our region. The empirical treatment was started in all the cases after demonstration of cyst on ultrasonography. The cases responded to the oral albendazole combined with corticosteroid therapy. As the disease is a common entity in our country all cases presenting with firm, long standing, single swelling in the head neck region should be dealt with suspicion of cysticercosis. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent the hazardous intracranial complications and mortality.</p>


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