Tissue Engineering
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
V. A. Nascimento ◽  
S. M. Malmonge ◽  
A. R. Santos Jr.

Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great potential for application in cell therapy and tissue engineering procedures because of their plasticity and capacity to differentiate into different cell types. Given the widespread use of MSCs, it is necessary to better understand some properties related to osteogenic differentiation, particularly those linked to biomaterials used in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to develop an analysis method using FT-Raman spectroscopy for the identification and quantification of biochemical components present in conditioned culture media derived from MSCs with or without induction of osteogenic differentiation. All experiments were performed between passages 3 and 5. For this analysis, MSCs were cultured on scaffolds composed of bioresorbable poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymers. MSCs (GIBCO®) were inoculated onto the pure polymers and 75:25 PHBV/PCL blend (dense and porous samples). The plate itself was used as control. The cells were maintained in DMEM (with low glucose) containing GlutaMAX® and 10% FBS at 37oC with 5% CO2 for 21 days. The conditioned culture media were collected and analyzed to probe for functional groups, as well as possible molecular variations associated with cell differentiation and metabolism. The method permitted to identify functional groups of specific molecules in the conditioned medium such as cholesterol, phosphatidylinositol, triglycerides, beta-subunit polypeptides, amide regions and hydrogen bonds of proteins, in addition to DNA expression. In the present study, FT-Raman spectroscopy exhibited limited resolution since different molecules can express similar or even the same stretching vibrations, a fact that makes analysis difficult. There were no variations in the readings between the samples studied. In conclusion, FT-Raman spectroscopy did not meet expectations under the conditions studied.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2496
Inga Urlić ◽  
Alan Ivković

Cell-based therapy represents a promising treatment strategy for cartilage defects. Alone or in combination with scaffolds/biological signals, these strategies open many new avenues for cartilage tissue engineering. However, the choice of the optimal cell source is not that straightforward. Currently, various types of differentiated cells (articular and nasal chondrocytes) and stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells) are being researched to objectively assess their merits and disadvantages with respect to the ability to repair damaged articular cartilage. In this paper, we focus on the different cell types used in cartilage treatment, first from a biological scientist’s perspective and then from a clinician’s standpoint. We compare and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these cell types and offer a potential outlook for future research and clinical application.

2021 ◽  
pp. 088391152110464
Rafael Carazzai ◽  
Nayrim Brizuela Guerra ◽  
Nicole Andréa Corbellini Henckes ◽  
Fernanda dos Santos de Oliveira ◽  
Elizabeth Obino Cirne-Lima ◽  

Fibrous scaffold along with seed cells are essential players for engineered tissue regeneration. Recently, PLGA/epoxidized poly(isoprene) dense membranes have been evaluated for cell growth and have shown satisfactory results. However, porous and fibrous structures suitable for obtaining 3D supports have not yet been evaluated for the PLGA/epoxidized poly(isoprene). The present work aimed to establish the electrospinning conditions for obtaining electrospun membranes with a smaller diameter of fibers and adequate morphology, which were characterized in vitro by their physical, chemical and biological properties. The best electrospun fibers were obtained from the following conditions: an applied voltage of 15 kV, a needle-collector distance of 20 cm and, a flow rate of 5 mL/h. The functional groups of the polymers involved in the blend did not show any changes. The mechanical properties of the electrospun membranes are within the lower limits known to human skin and some soft tissues. The in vitro degradation test showed a loss of mass of approximately 20% in 28 days. Significant adhesion and proliferation of human adipose–derived mesenchymal stem cells were demonstrated, indicating that there was cellular penetration into the scaffold and proliferation. Therefore, the preliminary results suggest that the electrospun PLGA/epoxidized poly(isoprene) membranes have high potential for application as a 3D tissue engineering scaffold.

2021 ◽  
Vol 900 ◽  
pp. 26-33
Ishraq Abd Ulrazzaq Kadhim

The present paper indicates promising potential of Sodium Alginate) Alg)/Graphene oxide (Go) films in fields bone tissue engineering (TE). The Sodium Alginate (Alg)/Graphene oxide (Go) films, were fabricated via (solvent casting method). The interaction of Sodium Alginate (Alg) with Graphene oxide (Go) via hydrogen bonding was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The swelling degree of Sodium Alginate (Alg)/Graphene oxid (Go) films was also studied. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of Sodium Alginate (Alg)/Graphene oxide (Go) films disclosed its non-cytotoxic effect on the cell lines (MG-63) in-vitro test, the viability of cell lines on the films, and hence its appropriateness as potent biomaterial for tissue engineering.

2021 ◽  

Abstract Cellulose nanowhiskers as one kind of renewable and biocompatible nanomaterials evoke much interest because of its versatility in various applications. Herein, the sisal cellulose nanowhiskers with length of 100–500 nm, ultrathin diameter of 6–61 nm, high crystallinity of 74.74 % and C6 carboxylate groups converted from C6 primary hydroxyls were prepared via a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)/NaBr/NaClO system selective oxidization combined with mechanical homogenization. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration in alkali pretreatment on the final sisal cellulose nanowhiskers were explored. It was found that with the increase of sodium hydroxide concentration, the sisal fiber crystalline type would change from cellulose I to cellulose II. The versatile sisal cellulose nanowhiskers would be particularly useful for applications in the nanocomposites as reinforcing phase, as well as in tissue engineering, filtration, pharmaceutical and optical industries as additives.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5371
Nina Filipczak ◽  
Satya Siva Kishan Yalamarty ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Muhammad Muzamil Khan ◽  
Farzana Parveen ◽  

The most important goal of regenerative medicine is to repair, restore, and regenerate tissues and organs that have been damaged as a result of an injury, congenital defect or disease, as well as reversing the aging process of the body by utilizing its natural healing potential. Regenerative medicine utilizes products of cell therapy, as well as biomedical or tissue engineering, and is a huge field for development. In regenerative medicine, stem cells and growth factor are mainly used; thus, innovative drug delivery technologies are being studied for improved delivery. Drug delivery systems offer the protection of therapeutic proteins and peptides against proteolytic degradation where controlled delivery is achievable. Similarly, the delivery systems in combination with stem cells offer improvement of cell survival, differentiation, and engraftment. The present review summarizes the significance of biomaterials in tissue engineering and the importance of colloidal drug delivery systems in providing cells with a local environment that enables them to proliferate and differentiate efficiently, resulting in successful tissue regeneration.

Human Cell ◽  
2021 ◽  
Leila Mohammadzadeh ◽  
Mehrdad Mahkam ◽  
Abolfazl Barzegari ◽  
Abbas Karimi ◽  
Hossein Samadi Kafil ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mauricio Zamorano ◽  
Rodrigo L. Castillo ◽  
Jorge F. Beltran ◽  
Lisandra Herrera ◽  
Joaquín A. Farias ◽  

Ischemia is a severe condition in which blood supply, including oxygen (O), to organs and tissues is interrupted and reduced. This is usually due to a clog or blockage in the arteries that feed the affected organ. Reinstatement of blood flow is essential to salvage ischemic tissues, restoring O, and nutrient supply. However, reperfusion itself may lead to major adverse consequences. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is often prompted by the local and systemic inflammatory reaction, as well as oxidative stress, and contributes to organ and tissue damage. In addition, the duration and consecutive ischemia-reperfusion cycles are related to the severity of the damage and could lead to chronic wounds. Clinical pathophysiological conditions associated with reperfusion events, including stroke, myocardial infarction, wounds, lung, renal, liver, and intestinal damage or failure, are concomitant in due process with a disability, morbidity, and mortality. Consequently, preventive or palliative therapies for this injury are in demand. Tissue engineering offers a promising toolset to tackle ischemia-reperfusion injuries. It devises tissue-mimetics by using the following: (1) the unique therapeutic features of stem cells, i.e., self-renewal, differentiability, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressants effects; (2) growth factors to drive cell growth, and development; (3) functional biomaterials, to provide defined microarchitecture for cell-cell interactions; (4) bioprocess design tools to emulate the macroscopic environment that interacts with tissues. This strategy allows the production of cell therapeutics capable of addressing ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In addition, it allows the development of physiological-tissue-mimetics to study this condition or to assess the effect of drugs. Thus, it provides a sound platform for a better understanding of the reperfusion condition. This review article presents a synopsis and discusses tissue engineering applications available to treat various types of ischemia-reperfusions, ultimately aiming to highlight possible therapies and to bring closer the gap between preclinical and clinical settings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8677
Maria Fermani ◽  
Varvara Platania ◽  
Rafaela-Maria Kavasi ◽  
Christina Karavasili ◽  
Paola Zgouro ◽  

Alginate-based hydrogel inks are commonly used in printing due to their biocompatibility, biodegradation, and cell adhesion. In the present work, 3D printing of hydrogels comprising alginate/methyl cellulose (MC)/trimethyl chitosan (TMC) and silicate glasses was investigated. It was found that TMC increased the stability of the scaffolds after immersion in normal saline solution in comparison with alginate/MC 3D constructs. The stability also remained after the incorporation of pure silicate glasses or bioactive glasses. Immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) resulted in the formation of hydroxyapatite in all samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed a good cell adhesion of pre-osteoblasts on all scaffold compositions, cell viability assessment displayed a proliferation increase up to seven days in culture, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was similar in all scaffold compositions without significant differences. Total collagen secretion by the pre-osteoblasts after 7 days in culture was significantly higher in scaffolds containing silicate glasses, demonstrating their ability to promote extracellular matrix formation. In conclusion, 3D-printed porous scaffolds based on alginate/methyl cellulose/TMC are promising candidates for bone tissue engineering applications.

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