inflammatory responses
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2022 ◽  
Vol 89 ◽  
pp. 104949
Xue Zhang ◽  
Liang Chen ◽  
Chun Hu ◽  
David Fast ◽  
Lu Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 74 ◽  
pp. 92-99
Jasna Friščić ◽  
Markus H Hoffmann

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Liwei Jiang ◽  
Mine Yilmaz ◽  
Mayuko Uehara ◽  
Cecilia B. Cavazzoni ◽  
Vivek Kasinath ◽  

Lymph node (LN)-resident stromal cells play an essential role in the proper functioning of LNs. The stromal compartment of the LN undergoes significant compensatory changes to produce a milieu amenable for regulation of the immune response. We have identified a distinct population of leptin receptor-expressing (LepR+) stromal cells, located in the vicinity of the high endothelial venules (HEVs) and lymphatics. These LepR+ stromal cells expressed markers for fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), but they lacked markers for follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). Leptin signaling deficiency led to heightened inflammatory responses within the LNs of db/db mice, leakiness of HEVs, and lymphatic fragmentation. Leptin signaling through the JAK/STAT pathway supported LN stromal cell survival and promoted the anti-inflammatory properties of these cells. Conditional knockout of the LepR+ stromal cells in LNs resulted in HEV and extracellular matrix (ECM) abnormalities. Treatment of ob/ob mice with an agonist leptin fusion protein restored the microarchitecture of LNs, reduced intra-LN inflammatory responses, and corrected metabolic abnormalities. Future studies are needed to study the importance of LN stomal cell dysfunction to the pathogenesis of inflammatory responses in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Xiaochen Yang ◽  
Lanping Liu ◽  
Xingjiang Xiong ◽  
Yun Zhang ◽  
Yongmei Liu ◽  

Abstract Introduction Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and its control rates remain low worldwide. The most effective strategy is that patients with hypertension should be diagnosed and treated early. Preliminary studies showed that the Bushen Jiangya granule (BSJY) could suppress ventricular hypertrophy and inflammatory responses, lower blood pressure, and protect the target organs of hypertension. We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of BSJY in patients with low-to-medium risk hypertension. Methods and analysis This trial is a one-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A total of 260 participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to an experimental group (BSJY plus amlodipine) and a control group (placebo plus amlodipine). The trial cycle will last 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the change in 24-h average systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The secondary outcomes include heart rate variability, pharmacogenomic evaluation, improvement in TCM syndrome, and serum pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines between the two groups. The safety of medication will also be evaluated. All the data will be recorded in electronic case report forms and analyzed by SPSS V.22.0. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences in Beijing, China (No. 2019-186-KY-01). The participants are volunteers, understand the process of this trial, and sign an informed consent. The results of this study will be disseminated to the public through peer-reviewed journals and academic conferences. Discussion We hypothesize that patients with low-to-medium-risk hypertension will benefit from BSJY. If successful, this study will provide evidence-based recommendations for clinicians. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiMCTR1900002876. Registered in November 2019

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 164
Hannah K. Fitzgerald ◽  
Sinead A. O’Rourke ◽  
Eva Desmond ◽  
Nuno G. B. Neto ◽  
Michael G. Monaghan ◽  

The extracellular parasite and causative agent of African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) has evolved a number of strategies to avoid immune detection in the host. One recently described mechanism involves the conversion of host-derived amino acids to aromatic ketoacids, which are detected at relatively high concentrations in the bloodstream of infected individuals. These ketoacids have been shown to directly suppress inflammatory responses in murine immune cells, as well as acting as potent inducers of the stress response enzyme, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which has proven anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of the T. brucei-derived ketoacids in primary human immune cells and further examine their potential as a therapy for inflammatory diseases. We report that the T. brucei-derived ketoacids, indole pyruvate (IP) and hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP), induce HO-1 expression through Nrf2 activation in human dendritic cells (DC). They also limit DC maturation and suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which, in turn, leads to a reduced capacity to differentiate adaptive CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, the ketoacids are capable of modulating DC cellular metabolism and suppressing the inflammatory profile of cells isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This study therefore not only provides further evidence of the immune-evasion mechanisms employed by T. brucei, but also supports further exploration of this new class of HO-1 inducers as potential therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Aifeng Liu ◽  
Jixin Chen ◽  
Juntao Zhang ◽  
Chao Zhang ◽  
Qinxin Zhou ◽  

AimThis study is to investigate the effects of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) loaded with the graphene oxide (GO) granular lubrication on ameliorating inflammatory responses and osteoporosis of the subchondral bone in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) animal models.MethodsThe KOA animal models were established using modified papain joint injection. 24 male New Zealand rabbits were classified into the blank control group, GO group, UCMSCs group, and GO + UCMSCs group, respectively. The concentration in serum and articular fluid nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), type II collagen (COL-II), and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was detected using ELISA, followed by the dissection of femoral condyles and staining of HE and Micro-CT for observation via the microscope.ResultsGO granular lubrication and UCMSCs repaired the KOA animal models. NO, IL-6, TNF-α, GAG, and COL-II showed optimal improvement performance in the GO + UCMSCs group, with statistical significance in contrast to the blank group (P <0.01). Whereas, there was a great difference in levels of inflammatory factors in serum and joint fluid. Micro-CT scan results revealed the greatest efficacy of the GO + UCMSCs group in improving joint surface damage and subchondral bone osteoporosis. HE staining pathology for femoral condyles revealed that the cartilage repair effect in GO + UCMSCs, UCMSCs, GO, and blank groups were graded down.ConclusionUCMSCs loaded with graphene oxide granular lubrication can promote the secretion of chondrocytes, reduce the level of joint inflammation, ameliorate osteoporosis of the subchondral bone, and facilitate cartilage repair.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 899
Tolulope Peter Saliu ◽  
Nao Yazawa ◽  
Kotaro Hashimoto ◽  
Kenshu Miyata ◽  
Ayane Kudo ◽  

The early detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in mice is necessary for the development of drugs and functional foods. The purpose of this study was to identify genes that are significantly upregulated in the early stage of DN progression and develop a novel model to non-invasively monitor disease progression within living animals using in vivo imaging technology. Streptozotocin (STZ) treatment has been widely used as a DN model; however, it also exhibits direct cytotoxicity to the kidneys. As it is important to distinguish between DN-related and STZ-induced nephropathy, in this study, we compared renal responses induced by the diabetic milieu with two types of STZ models: multiple low-dose STZ injections with a high-fat diet and two moderate-dose STZ injections to induce DN. We found 221 genes whose expression was significantly altered during DN development in both models and identified serum amyloid A3 (Saa3) as a candidate gene. Next, we applied the Saa3 promoter-driven luciferase reporter (Saa3-promoter luc mice) to these two STZ models and performed in vivo bioluminescent imaging to monitor the progression of renal pathology. In this study, to further exclude the possibility that the in vivo bioluminescence signal is related to renal cytotoxicity by STZ treatment, we injected insulin into Saa3-promoter luc mice and showed that insulin treatment could downregulate renal inflammatory responses with a decreased signal intensity of in vivo bioluminescence imaging. These results strongly suggest that Saa3 promoter activity is a potent non-invasive indicator that can be used to monitor DN progression and explore therapeutic agents and functional foods.

Immuno ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 104-117
Dennis Awuah ◽  
Alisa Ruisinger ◽  
Meshal Alobaid ◽  
Chidimma Mbadugha ◽  
Amir M. Ghaemmaghami

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), where it exerts anti-inflammatory responses against TLR4-induced inflammation. Recently, microRNA-511 (miR-511) has also emerged as a key player in controlling TLR4-mediated signalling and in regulating the function of DCs. Interestingly, PPARγ has been previously highlighted as a putative target of miR-511 activity; however, the link between miR-511 and PPARγ and its influence on human DC function within the context of LPS-induced inflammatory responses is unknown. Using a selection of miR-511-3p-specific inhibitors and mimics, we demonstrate for the first time that knockdown or overexpression of miR-511-3p inversely correlates with PPARγ mRNA levels and affects its transcriptional activity following treatment with rosiglitazone (RSG; PPARγ agonist), in the presence or absence of LPS. Additionally, we show that PPARγ-mediated suppression of DC activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in miR-511-3p knockdown DCs is abrogated following overexpression of miR-511-3p. Lastly, PPARγ activation suppressed LPS-mediated induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in DCs, most likely due to changes in miR-511-3p expression. Our data thus suggests that PPARγ-induced modulation of DC phenotype and function is influenced by miR-511-3p expression, which may serve as a potential therapeutic target against inflammatory diseases.

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