scholarly journals Gut dysbiosis, inflammation and type 2 diabetes in mice using synthetic gut microbiota from diabetic humans

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
N. M. Ali ◽  
N. Arshad ◽  
S. Sajjad ◽  
F. Rashid ◽  

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .

2012 ◽  
Vol 78 (19) ◽  
pp. 7156-7159 ◽  
Yurui Tang ◽  
Titta J. K. Manninen ◽  
Per E. J. Saris

ABSTRACTLactobacilli were isolated from jejunal chyme from five fistulated beagles. Cultivable lactobacilli varied from 104to 108CFU/ml. Seventy-four isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and differentiated by repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR),Lactobacillus acidophiluswas dominant, and nearly 80% of 54 isolates shared the same DNA fingerprint pattern.

2019 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 90-101
Sanju Kumari ◽  
Utkarshini Sharma ◽  
Rohit Krishna ◽  
Kanak Sinha ◽  
Santosh Kumar

Background: Cellulolysis is of considerable economic importance in laundry detergents, textile and pulp and paper industries and in fermentation of biomass into biofuels. Objective: The aim was to screen cellulase producing actinobacteria from the fruit orchard because of its requirement in several chemical reactions. Methods: Strains of actinobacteria were isolated on Sabouraud’s agar medium. Similarities in cultural and biochemical characterization by growing the strains on ISP medium and dissimilarities among them perpetuated to recognise nine groups of actinobacteria. Cellulase activity was measured by the diameter of clear zone around colonies on CMC agar and the amount of reducing sugar liberated from carboxymethyl cellulose in the supernatant of the CMC broth. Further, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and molecular characterization were placed before NCBI for obtaining recognition with accession numbers. Results: Prominent clear zones on spraying Congo Red were found around the cultures of strains of three groups SK703, SK706, SK708 on CMC agar plates. The enzyme assay for carboxymethylcellulase displayed extra cellulase activity in broth: 0.14, 0.82 and 0.66 &#181;mol mL-1 min-1, respectively at optimum conditions of 35°C, pH 7.3 and 96 h of incubation. However, the specific cellulase activities per 1 mg of protein did not differ that way. It was 1.55, 1.71 and 1.83 μmol mL-1 min-1. The growing mycelia possessed short compact chains of 10-20 conidia on aerial branches. These morphological and biochemical characteristics, followed by their verification by Bergey’s Manual, categorically allowed the strains to be placed under actinobacteria. Further, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, molecular characterization and their evolutionary relationship through phylogenetics also confirmed the putative cellulase producing isolates of SK706 and SK708 subgroups to be the strains of Streptomyces. These strains on getting NCBI recognition were christened as Streptomyces glaucescens strain SK91L (KF527284) and Streptomyces rochei strain SK78L (KF515951), respectively. Conclusion: Conclusive evidence on the basis of different parameters established the presence of cellulase producing actinobacteria in the litchi orchard which can convert cellulose into fermentable sugar.

Microbiome ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Janis R. Bedarf ◽  
Naiara Beraza ◽  
Hassan Khazneh ◽  
Ezgi Özkurt ◽  
David Baker ◽  

Abstract Background Recent studies suggested the existence of (poly-)microbial infections in human brains. These have been described either as putative pathogens linked to the neuro-inflammatory changes seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or as a “brain microbiome” in the context of healthy patients’ brain samples. Methods Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we tested the hypothesis that there is a bacterial brain microbiome. We evaluated brain samples from healthy human subjects and individuals suffering from PD (olfactory bulb and pre-frontal cortex), as well as murine brains. In line with state-of-the-art recommendations, we included several negative and positive controls in our analysis and estimated total bacterial biomass by 16S rRNA gene qPCR. Results Amplicon sequencing did detect bacterial signals in both human and murine samples, but estimated bacterial biomass was extremely low in all samples. Stringent reanalyses implied bacterial signals being explained by a combination of exogenous DNA contamination (54.8%) and false positive amplification of host DNA (34.2%, off-target amplicons). Several seemingly brain-enriched microbes in our dataset turned out to be false-positive signals upon closer examination. We identified off-target amplification as a major confounding factor in low-bacterial/high-host-DNA scenarios. These amplified human or mouse DNA sequences were clustered and falsely assigned to bacterial taxa in the majority of tested amplicon sequencing pipelines. Off-target amplicons seemed to be related to the tissue’s sterility and could also be found in independent brain 16S rRNA gene sequences. Conclusions Taxonomic signals obtained from (extremely) low biomass samples by 16S rRNA gene sequencing must be scrutinized closely to exclude the possibility of off-target amplifications, amplicons that can only appear enriched in biological samples, but are sometimes assigned to bacterial taxa. Sequences must be explicitly matched against any possible background genomes present in large quantities (i.e., the host genome). Using close scrutiny in our approach, we find no evidence supporting the hypothetical presence of either a brain microbiome or a bacterial infection in PD brains.

2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (1) ◽  
Musa Saheed Ibrahim ◽  
Beckley Ikhajiagbe

Abstract Background Rice forms a significant portion of food consumed in most household worldwide. Rice production has been hampered by soil factors such as ferruginousity which has limited phosphorus availability; an important mineral component for the growth and yield of rice. The presence of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in soils has been reported to enhance phosphate availability. In view of this, the present study employed three bacteria species (BCAC2, EMBF2 and BCAF1) that were previously isolated and proved P solubilization capacities as inocula to investigate the growth response of rice germinants in an in vitro setup. The bacteria isolates were first identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and then applied as inoculum. The inolula were prepared in three concentrations (10, 7.5 and 5.0 ml) following McFarland standard. Viable rice (var. FARO 44) seeds were sown in petri dishes and then inoculated with the three inocula at the different concentrations. The setup was studied for 28 days. Results 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the isolates as: isolate BCAC2= Bacillus cereus strain GGBSU-1, isolate BCAF1= Proteus mirabilis strain TL14-1 and isolate EMBF2= Klebsiella variicola strain AUH-KAM-9. Significant improvement in rice germination, morphology, physiology and biomass parameters in the bacteria-inoculated setups was observed compared to the control. Germination percentage after 4 days was 100 % in the inoculated rice germinants compared to 65% in the control (NiS). Similarly, inoculation with the test isolates enhanced water-use efficiency by over 40%. The rice seedlings inoculated with Bacillus cereus strain GGBSU-1 (BiS) showed no signs of chlorosis and necrosis throughout the study period as against those inoculated with Proteus mirabilis strain TL14-1 (PiS) and Klebsiella variicola strain AUH-KAM-9 (KiS). Significant increase in chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and alpha amylase was observed in the rice seedlings inoculated with BiS as against the NiS. Conclusion Inoculating rice seeds with Bacillus cereus strain GGBSU-1, Proteus mirabilis strain TL14-1 and Klebsiella variicola strain AUH-KAM-9 in an in vitro media significantly improved growth parameters of the test plant. Bacillus cereus strain GGBSU-1 showed higher efficiency due to a more improved growth properties observed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Shenhai Gong ◽  
Yinglin Feng ◽  
Yunong Zeng ◽  
Huanrui Zhang ◽  
Meiping Pan ◽  

Abstract Background Gut microbiota has been reported to be disrupted by cisplatin, as well as to modulate chemotherapy toxicity. However, the precise role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of cisplatin hepatotoxicity remains unknown. Methods We compared the composition and function of gut microbiota between mice treated with and without cisplatin using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and via metabolomic analysis. For understanding the causative relationship between gut dysbiosis and cisplatin hepatotoxicity, antibiotics were administered to deplete gut microbiota and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed before cisplatin treatment. Results 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomic analysis showed that cisplatin administration caused gut microbiota dysbiosis in mice. Gut microbiota ablation by antibiotic exposure protected against the hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin. Interestingly, mice treated with antibiotics dampened the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and promoted nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 nuclear translocation, resulting in decreased levels of both inflammation and oxidative stress in the liver. FMT also confirmed the role of microbiota in individual susceptibility to cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusions This study elucidated the mechanism by which gut microbiota mediates cisplatin hepatotoxicity through enhanced inflammatory response and oxidative stress. This knowledge may help develop novel therapeutic approaches that involve targeting the composition and metabolites of microbiota.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Francesco Durazzi ◽  
Claudia Sala ◽  
Gastone Castellani ◽  
Gerardo Manfreda ◽  
Daniel Remondini ◽  

AbstractIn this paper we compared taxonomic results obtained by metataxonomics (16S rRNA gene sequencing) and metagenomics (whole shotgun metagenomic sequencing) to investigate their reliability for bacteria profiling, studying the chicken gut as a model system. The experimental conditions included two compartments of gastrointestinal tracts and two sampling times. We compared the relative abundance distributions obtained with the two sequencing strategies and then tested their capability to distinguish the experimental conditions. The results showed that 16S rRNA gene sequencing detects only part of the gut microbiota community revealed by shotgun sequencing. Specifically, when a sufficient number of reads is available, Shotgun sequencing has more power to identify less abundant taxa than 16S sequencing. Finally, we showed that the less abundant genera detected only by shotgun sequencing are biologically meaningful, being able to discriminate between the experimental conditions as much as the more abundant genera detected by both sequencing strategies.

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