16s rrna gene sequencing
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
N. M. Ali ◽  
N. Arshad ◽  
S. Sajjad ◽  
F. Rashid ◽  

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .

2022 ◽  
Fengping Liu ◽  
Jingjie Du ◽  
Qixiao Zhai ◽  
Jialin Hu ◽  
Aaron W. Miller ◽  

Background and aims: Emerging studies reveal a unique bacterial community in the human bladder, with alteration of composition associated to disease states. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that is characterized by frequent impairment of the kidney. Here, we explored the bladder microbiome, metabolome, and cytokine profiles in SLE patients, as well as correlations between microbiome and metabolome, cytokines, and disease profiles. Methods and materials: We recruited a cohort of 50 SLE patients and 50 individually matched asymptomatic controls. We used transurethral catheterization to collect urine samples, 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile bladder microbiomes, and LC-MS/MS to perform untargeted metabolomic profiling. Results: Compared to controls, SLE patients possessed a unique bladder microbial community and increased alpha diversity. These differences were accompanied by differences in urinary metabolomes, cytokines, and patients’ disease profiles. The SLE-enriched genera, including Bacteroides, were positively correlated with several SLE-enriched metabolites, including olopatadine. The SLE-depleted genera, such as Pseudomonas, were negatively correlated to SLE-depleted cytokines, including IL-8. Alteration of the bladder microbiome was associated with disease profile. For example, the genera Megamonas and Phocaeicola were negatively correlated with serum complement C3, and Streptococcus was positively correlated with IgG. Conclusions: Our present study reveals associations between the bladder microbiome and the urinary metabolome, cytokines, and disease phenotypes. Our results could help identify biomarkers for SLE.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Weilan Wang ◽  
Jodi E. Nettleton ◽  
Michael G. Gänzle ◽  
Raylene A. Reimer

To identify possible mechanisms by which maternal consumption of non-nutritive sweeteners increases obesity risk in offspring, we reconstructed the major alterations in the cecal microbiome of 3-week-old offspring of obese dams consuming high fat/sucrose (HFS) diet with or without aspartame (5–7 mg/kg/day) or stevia (2–3 mg/kg/day) by shotgun metagenomic sequencing (n = 36). High throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing (n = 105) was performed for dams, 3- and 18-week-old offspring. Maternal consumption of sweeteners altered cecal microbial composition and metabolism of propionate/lactate in their offspring. Offspring daily body weight gain, liver weight and body fat were positively correlated to the relative abundance of key microbes and enzymes involved in succinate/propionate production while negatively correlated to that of lactose degradation and lactate production. The altered propionate/lactate production in the cecum of weanlings from aspartame and stevia consuming dams implicates an altered ratio of dietary carbohydrate digestion, mainly lactose, in the small intestine vs. microbial fermentation in the large intestine. The reconstructed microbiome alterations could explain increased offspring body weight and body fat. This study demonstrates that intense sweet tastants have a lasting and intergenerational effect on gut microbiota, microbial metabolites and host health.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 140
Farideh Ghadamgahi ◽  
Saeed Tarighi ◽  
Parissa Taheri ◽  
Ganapathi Varma Saripella ◽  
Alice Anzalone ◽  

P. aeruginosa strain FG106 was isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato plants and identified through morphological analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and whole-genome sequencing. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that this strain could control several pathogens on tomato, potato, taro, and strawberry. Volatile and non-volatile metabolites produced by the strain are known to adversely affect the tested pathogens. FG106 showed clear antagonism against Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Phytophthora colocasiae, P. infestans, Rhizoctonia solani, and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria pv. perforans. FG106 produced proteases and lipases while also inducing high phosphate solubilization, producing siderophores, ammonia, indole acetic acid (IAA), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and forming biofilms that promote plant growth and facilitate biocontrol. Genome mining approaches showed that this strain harbors genes related to biocontrol and growth promotion. These results suggest that this bacterial strain provides good protection against pathogens of several agriculturally important plants via direct and indirect modes of action and could thus be a valuable bio-control agent.

Christina L. Elling ◽  
Melissa A. Scholes ◽  
Sven-Olrik Streubel ◽  
Eric D. Larson ◽  
Todd M. Wine ◽  

Otitis media (OM) is a leading cause of childhood hearing loss. Variants in FUT2, which encodes alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase, were identified to increase susceptibility to OM, potentially through shifts in the middle ear (ME) or nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiotas as mediated by transcriptional changes. Greater knowledge of differences in relative abundance of otopathogens in carriers of pathogenic variants can help determine risk for OM in patients. In order to determine the downstream effects of FUT2 variation, we examined gene expression in relation to carriage of a common pathogenic FUT2 c.461G&gt;A (p.Trp154*) variant using RNA-sequence data from saliva samples from 28 patients with OM. Differential gene expression was also examined in bulk mRNA and single-cell RNA-sequence data from wildtype mouse ME mucosa after inoculation with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). In addition, microbiotas were profiled from ME and NP samples of 65 OM patients using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In human carriers of the FUT2 variant, FN1, KMT2D, MUC16 and NBPF20 were downregulated while MTAP was upregulated. Post-infectious expression in the mouse ME recapitulated these transcriptional differences, with the exception of Fn1 upregulation after NTHi-inoculation. In the NP, Candidate Division TM7 was associated with wildtype genotype (FDR-adj-p=0.009). Overall, the FUT2 c.461G&gt;A variant was associated with transcriptional changes in processes related to response to infection and with increased load of potential otopathogens in the ME and decreased commensals in the NP. These findings provide increased understanding of how FUT2 variants influence gene transcription and the mucosal microbiota, and thus contribute to the pathology of OM.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262095
Lena M. Biehl ◽  
Fedja Farowski ◽  
Catharina Hilpert ◽  
Angela Nowag ◽  
Anne Kretzschmar ◽  

Background The understanding of longitudinal changes in the urinary microbiota of healthy women and its relation to intestinal microbiota is limited. Methods From a cohort of 15 premenopausal women without known urogenital disease or current symptoms, we collected catheter urine (CU), vaginal and periurethral swabs, and fecal samples on four visits over six months. Additionally, ten participants provided CU and midstream urine (MU) to assess comparability. Urine was subjected to expanded culture. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on all urine, fecal, and selected vaginal and periurethral samples. Sequence reads were processed (DADA2 pipeline) and analyzed using QIIME 2 and R. Results Relative abundances of urinary microbiota were variable over 6–18 months. The degree of intraindividual variability of urinary microbiota was higher than that found in fecal samples. Still, nearly half of the observed beta diversity of all urine samples could be attributed to differences between volunteers (R2 = 0.48, p = 0.001). After stratification by volunteer, time since last sexual intercourse was shown to be a factor significantly contributing to beta diversity (R2 = 0.14, p = 0.001). We observed a close relatedness of urogenital microbial habitats and a clear distinction from intestinal microbiota in the overall betadiversity analysis. Microbiota compositions derived from MU differed only slightly from CU compositions. Within this analysis of low-biomass samples, we identified contaminating sequences potentially stemming from sequencing reagents. Conclusions Results from our longitudinal cohort study confirmed the presence of a rather variable individual urinary microbiota in premenopausal women. These findings from catheter urine complement previous observations on temporal dynamics in voided urine. The higher intraindividual variability of urinary microbiota as compared to fecal microbiota will be a challenge for future studies investigating associations with urogenital diseases and aiming at identifying pathogenic microbiota signatures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 170
Andrey L. Rakitin ◽  
Shahjahon Begmatov ◽  
Alexey V. Beletsky ◽  
Dmitriy A. Philippov ◽  
Vitaly V. Kadnikov ◽  

Large areas in the northern hemisphere are covered by extensive wetlands, which represent a complex mosaic of raised bogs, eutrophic fens, and aapa mires all in proximity to each other. Aapa mires differ from other types of wetlands by their concave surface, heavily watered by the central part, as well as by the presence of large-patterned string-flark complexes. In this paper, we characterized microbial diversity patterns in the surface peat layers of the neighboring string and flark structures located within the mire site in the Vologda region of European North Russia, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The microbial communities in raised strings were clearly distinct from those in submerged flarks. Strings were dominated by the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Other abundant groups were the Acidobacteriota, Bacteroidota, Verrucomicrobiota, Actinobacteriota, and Planctomycetota. Archaea accounted for only 0.4% of 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from strings. By contrast, they comprised about 22% of all sequences in submerged flarks and mostly belonged to methanogenic lineages. Methanotrophs were nearly absent. Other flark-specific microorganisms included the phyla Chloroflexi, Spirochaetota, Desulfobacterota, Beijerinckiaceae- and Rhodomicrobiaceae-affiliated Alphaproteobacteria, and uncultivated groups env.OPS_17 and vadinHA17 of the Bacteroidota. Such pattern probably reflects local anaerobic conditions in the submerged peat layers in flarks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Antonia Cristi ◽  
Génesis Parada-Pozo ◽  
Felipe Morales-Vicencio ◽  
César A. Cárdenas ◽  
Nicole Trefault

Sponge-associated microorganisms are essential for sponge survival. They play an important role in recycling nutrients and, therefore, in the maintenance of the ecosystem. These microorganisms are diverse, species-specific, and different from those in the surrounding seawater. Bacterial sponge symbionts have been extensively studied in the tropics; however, little is known about these microorganisms in sponges from high-latitude environments. Sponges can cover up to 80% of the benthos in Antarctica and are crucial architects for the marine food web. In this study, we present analyses of the bacterial symbionts of three sponges: Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sp., Hymeniacidon torquata, and Isodictya kerguelenensis from the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) with the aim to determine variations on the specificity of the bacteria–sponge interactions and potential signatures on their predicted functional profiles. We use high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 30 sponge individuals inhabiting South Bay (Palmer Archipelago, WAP) to describe their microbiome taxonomy and diversity and predict potential functional profiles based on this marker gene. Our work shows similar bacterial community composition profiles among the same sponge species, although the symbiotic relationship is not equally conserved among the three Antarctic sponges. The number of species-specific core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of these Antarctic sponges was low, with important differences between the total abundance accounted for these OTUs. Only eight OTUs were shared between the three sponge species. Analyses of the functional potential revealed that despite the high host–symbiont specificity, the inferred functions are conserved among these microbiomes, although with differences in the abundance of specific functions. H. torquata showed the highest level of intra-specificity and a higher potential of pathways related to energy metabolism, metabolisms of terpenoids and polyketides, and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites. Overall, this work shows variations in the specificity of the sponge-associated bacterial communities, differences in how hosts and symbionts establish their relations, and in their potential functional capabilities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Jindong Zhao ◽  
Lili Liu ◽  
Ling Xin ◽  
Yunxia Lu ◽  
Xiaojun Yang ◽  

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a modified Xiaohua Funing decoction (Xfd) on acute liver failure (ALF) and determine whether the protective mechanisms are related to alterations in the gut microbiota. Methods. An animal model of ALF was induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (D-Gal, 0.5 g/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 μg/kg). Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the following 4 groups: the control group (saline, Con), model group (D-Gal/LPS, Mod), silymarin pretreatment group (200 mg/kg, Sil), and modified Xfd pretreatment group (650 mg/kg, Xfd). The Sil and Xfd groups received the respective intervention orally for 14 days and 2 h before D-Gal/LPS treatment. The liver injury markers included alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and liver histology. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to assess the effects on the caecum content. Results. D-Gal/LPS treatment caused severe ALF, illustrating that the ALF model was successfully established. The administration of Sil and Xfd greatly reduced the serum ALT and AST levels and improved the pathological signs of liver injury. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups. In contrast to the Mod group, the Sil and Xfd groups showed a shift toward the Con group in terms of the gut microbiota structure. The abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio in the Mod group significantly differed from those in the Con group. The Sil and Xfd groups showed restoration of the disordered microbiota. Significantly increased relative abundances of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group and Candidatus_Saccharimonas and a markedly decreased Muribaculaceae abundance were found in the Sil and Xfd mice compared with those in the Mod mice ( P < 0.01 , P < 0.05 ). Interestingly, a negative correlation was observed between the abundances of the gut microbiota constituents, specifically Clostridia_UCG-014, and ALT and AST levels. Conclusion. In summary, our results indicate that Xfd may protect the liver and modify the gut microbiota in ALF mice.

Shuo Wang ◽  
Yuan Wei ◽  
Luyan Liu ◽  
Zailing Li

Regulating the composition of human breastmilk has the potential to prevent allergic diseases early in life. The composition of breastmilk is complex, comprising varying levels of oligosaccharides, immunoactive molecules, vitamins, metabolites, and microbes. Although several studies have examined the relationship between different components of breastmilk and infant food allergies, few have investigated the relationship between microorganisms in breastmilk and infant food allergy. In the present study, we selected 135 healthy pregnant women and their full-term newborns from a cohort of 202 mother–infant pairs. Among them, 69 infants were exclusively breastfed until 6 mo after birth. At follow-up, 11 of the 69 infants developed a food allergy in infancy while 22 showed no signs of allergy. Thirty-three breastmilk samples were collected within 1 mo after delivery, and 123 infant fecal samples were collected at five time points following their birth. These samples were analyzed using microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The abundance and evenness of the milk microbiota and the number of differential bacteria were higher in the breastmilk samples from the non-allergy group than in those from the food allergy group. The non-allergy group showed relatively high abundance of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Clostridium IV, Clostridium XIVa, Veillonella, and butyrate-producing bacteria such as Fusobacterium, Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus. In contrast, the abundance of Proteobacteria, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas in breastmilk was higher in the food allergy group. A comparison of the changes in dominant differential breastmilk microbiota in the intestinal flora of the two groups of infants over time revealed that the changes in Bifidobacterium abundance were consistent with those in the breastmilk flora. Functional pathway prediction of breastmilk microflora showed that the enhancement of the metabolic pathways of tyrosine, tryptophan, and fatty acids was significantly different between the groups. We suggest that changes in the breastmilk microbiota can influence the development of food allergies. Breastmilk contains several microbes that have protective effects against food allergies, both by influencing the colonization of intestinal microbiota and by producing butyrate. This study may provide new ideas for improving infant health through early intervention with probiotics.

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