Oxidative Stress
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2021 ◽  
Vol 227 ◽  
pp. 112919
Author(s):  
Zhihui Tian ◽  
Haohao Liu ◽  
Xinghai Chen ◽  
Michael D. Losiewicz ◽  
Rui Wang ◽  
...  

GeroScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Partha K. Chandra ◽  
Sinisa Cikic ◽  
Ibolya Rutkai ◽  
Jessie J. Guidry ◽  
Prasad V. G. Katakam ◽  
...  

AbstractDifferentially expressed (DE) proteins in the cortical microvessels (MVs) of young, middle-aged, and old male and female mice were evaluated using discovery-based proteomics analysis (> 4,200 quantified proteins/group). Most DE proteins (> 90%) showed no significant differences between the sexes; however, some significant DE proteins showing sexual differences in MVs decreased from young (8.3%), to middle-aged (3.7%), to old (0.5%) mice. Therefore, we combined male and female data for age-dependent comparisons but noted sex differences for examination. Key proteins involved in the oxidative stress response, mRNA or protein stability, basement membrane (BM) composition, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial function were significantly altered with aging. Relative abundance of superoxide dismutase-1/-2, catalase and thioredoxin were reduced with aging. Proteins participating in either mRNA degradation or pre-mRNA splicing were significantly increased in old mice MVs, whereas protein stabilizing proteins decreased. Glycolytic proteins were not affected in middle age, but the relative abundance of these proteins decreased in MVs of old mice. Although most of the 41 examined proteins composing mitochondrial complexes I–V were reduced in old mice, six of these proteins showed a significant reduction in middle-aged mice, but the relative abundance increased in fourteen proteins. Nidogen, collagen, and laminin family members as well as perlecan showed differing patterns during aging, indicating BM reorganization starting in middle age. We suggest that increased oxidative stress during aging leads to adverse protein profile changes of brain cortical MVs that affect mRNA/protein stability, BM integrity, and ATP synthesis capacity.


Author(s):  
Kempaiah Rayavara ◽  
Alexander Kurosky ◽  
Yashoda Madaiah Hosakote

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human pathogen that causes severe lower respiratory tract infections in young children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised, yet no effective treatments or vaccines are available. The precise mechanism underlying RSV-induced acute airway disease and associated sequelae are not fully understood; however, early lung inflammatory and immune events are thought to play a major role in the outcome of the disease. Moreover, oxidative stress responses in the airways plays a key role in the pathogenesis of RSV. Oxidative stress has been shown to elevate cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) levels, which in turn activate Ca2+-dependent enzymes, including transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Transglutaminase 2 is a multifunctional cross-linking enzyme implicated in various physiological and pathological conditions; however, its involvement in respiratory virus-induced airway inflammation is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that RSV-induced oxidative stress promotes enhanced activation and release of TG2 from human lung epithelial cells as a result of its translocation from the cytoplasm and subsequent release into the extracellular space, which was mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and NF-κB pathways. Antioxidant treatment significantly inhibited RSV-induced TG2 extracellular release and activation via blocking viral replication. Also, treatment of RSV-infected lung epithelial cells with TG2 inhibitor significantly reduced RSV-induced matrix metalloprotease activities. These results suggested that RSV-induced oxidative stress activates innate immune receptors in the airways, such as TLRs, that can activate TG2 via the NF-κB pathway to promote cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins, resulting in enhanced inflammation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (5) ◽  
pp. 635-650

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) involves oxidative stress, disruption of microvasculature due to endothelial cell damage, loss of epithelial cell polarity secondary to cytoskeletal alterations, inflammation, and the subsequent transition into a mesenchymal phenotype. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to avoid/ameliorate the IRI. Since previous results showed that IPC could have differential effects in kidney cortex vs. kidney medulla, in the present study we analyzed the effectiveness and molecular mechanisms implicated in IPC in both kidney regions. METHODS: We evaluated 3 experimental groups of BALB/c male mice: control (sham surgery); renal ischemia (30 min) by bilateral occlusion of the renal pedicle and reperfusion (48 hours) (I/R); and renal IPC (two cycles of 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion) applied just before I/R. Acute kidney injury was evaluated by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) blood level, and histologic analysis. Oxidative stress was studied measurement the Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity, GSH/GSSG ratio, and lipoperoxidation levels. Inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, Foxp3, and IL-10) were quantified by qRT-PCR. The endothelial (PECAM-1), epithelial (AQP-1), mesenchymal (Vimentin, Fascin, and Hsp47), iNOS, clusterin, and Hsp27 expression were evaluated (qRT-PCR and/or Western blot). RESULTS: The IPC protocol prevented the decrease of GFR, reduced the plasma NGAL, and ameliorated morphological damage in the kidney cortex after I/R. The IPC also prevented the downregulation of GST activity, lipoperoxidation and ameliorated the oxidized glutathione. In addition, IPC prevented the upregulation of vimentin, fascin, and Hsp47, which was associated with the prevention of the downregulation of AQP1 after I/R. The protective effect of IPC was associated with the upregulation of Hsp27, Foxp3, and IL-10 expression in the renal cortex. However, the upregulation of iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and clusterin by I/R were not modified by IPC. CONCLUSION: IPC conferred better protection in the kidney cortex as compared to the kidney medulla. The protective effect of IPC was associated with amelioration of oxidative stress, tubular damage, and the induction of markers of Treg lymphocytes activity in the cortical region. Further studies are needed to evaluate if lower tubular cell stress/damage after I/R may explain the preferential induction of Treg response in the kidney cortex induced by IPC.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nipuni Thanthrige ◽  
Sudipta Das Bhowmik ◽  
Brett J. Ferguson ◽  
Mehdi Kabbage ◽  
Sagadevan G. Mundree ◽  
...  

Autophagy is a genetically regulated, eukaryotic cellular degradation system that sequestrates cytoplasmic materials in specialised vesicles, termed autophagosomes, for delivery and breakdown in the lysosome or vacuole. In plants, autophagy plays essential roles in development (e.g., senescence) and responses to abiotic (e.g., nutrient starvation, drought and oxidative stress) and biotic stresses (e.g., hypersensitive response). Initially, autophagy was considered a non-selective bulk degradation mechanism that provides energy and building blocks for homeostatic balance during stress. Recent studies, however, reveal that autophagy may be more subtle and selectively target ubiquitylated protein aggregates, protein complexes and even organelles for degradation to regulate vital cellular processes even during favourable conditions. The selective nature of autophagy lends itself to potential manipulation and exploitation as part of designer protein turnover machinery for the development of stress-tolerant and disease-resistant crops, crops with increased yield potential and agricultural efficiency and reduced post-harvest losses. Here, we discuss our current understanding of autophagy and speculate its potential manipulation for improved agricultural performance.


Author(s):  
Yuzhu Dong ◽  
Huichun Tong ◽  
Qingqing Hu ◽  
Xiuzhu Dong

Translation regulation is a common strategy used by organisms to reduce oxidative damage. Catalase-negative streptococci produce as well as tolerate high levels of H 2 O 2 .


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Celeste Trejo-Moreno ◽  
Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer ◽  
Gabriela Castro-Martínez ◽  
Marisol Méndez-Martínez ◽  
María Angélica Santana ◽  
...  

AbstractEndothelial dysfunction (ED) is a key factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Due to its chronic, life-threatening nature, ED only can be studied experimentally in animal models. Therefore, this work was aimed to characterize a murine model of ED induced by a daily intraperitoneal administration of angiotensin II (AGII) for 10 weeks. Oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular remodeling, hypertension, and damage to various target organs were evaluated in treated animals. The results indicated that a chronic intraperitoneal administration of AGII increases the production of systemic soluble VCAM, ROS and ICAM-1 expression, and the production of TNFα, IL1β, IL17A, IL4, TGFβ, and IL10 in the kidney, as well as blood pressure levels; it also promotes vascular remodeling and induces non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, glomerulosclerosis, and proliferative retinopathy. Therefore, the model herein proposed can be a representative model for ED; additionally, it is easy to implement, safe, rapid, and inexpensive.


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