rrna gene sequencing
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
N. M. Ali ◽  
N. Arshad ◽  
S. Sajjad ◽  
F. Rashid ◽  

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Marcos Rogério André ◽  
Ana Cláudia Calchi ◽  
Maria Eduarda Chiaradia Furquim ◽  
Isabela de Andrade ◽  
Paulo Vitor Cadina Arantes ◽  

Even though the epidemiology of tick-borne agents (TBA) in dogs has been extensively investigated around the world, the occurrence, vectors involved, and molecular identity of these agents in cats remains elusive in many regions. Among TBA, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Babesia, Cytauxzoon, and Hepatozoon are responsible for diseases with non-specific clinical signs in cats, making essential the use of molecular techniques for accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence and molecular identity of tick-borne agents (Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Babesia/Theileria, Cytauxzoon, and Hepatozoon) in cats from southeastern (states of São Paulo (SP) and Minas Gerais (MG)) and northern (state of Rondônia (RO)) Brazil. For this purpose, 390 blood samples were collected from domiciled cats in MG (n = 155), SP (n = 151), and RO(n = 84) states, submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays for Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene), Anaplasma spp. (rrs gene), piroplasmids (18S rRNA gene), and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), sequencing, and phylogenetic inferences. The overall positivity for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Babesia/Theileria spp., Cytauxzoon spp., and Hepatozoon spp. were 7.4% (12.3% (MG) and 6.6% (SP)), 2% (4.5% (MG) and 0.6% (SP)), 0.7% (0.6% (MG), 0.6% (SP) and 1.2% (RO)), 27.2% (41.9% (MG), 24.5% (SP) and 4.8% (RO), and 0%, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis grouped the obtained sequences with ‘Candidatus Anaplasma amazonensis’, A. platys, B. vogeli, and Cytauxzoon sp. previously detected in wild felids from Brazil. qPCR specific for E. canis based on the dsb gene confirmed the molecular identity of the detected ehrlichial agent. The present study expanded the list and geographical distribution of hemoparasites in cats. ‘Candidatus Anaplasma amazonensis’, recently detected in sloths from northern Brazil, was described for the first time in cats. This is the first report of piroplasmids infecting cats in northern Brazil. Coinfection by Cytauxzoon and other TBA (Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and B. vogeli) reported in the present study raises the need for veterinary practitioners’ awareness of cats parasitized by multiple TBA.

2022 ◽  
Fengping Liu ◽  
Jingjie Du ◽  
Qixiao Zhai ◽  
Jialin Hu ◽  
Aaron W. Miller ◽  

Background and aims: Emerging studies reveal a unique bacterial community in the human bladder, with alteration of composition associated to disease states. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that is characterized by frequent impairment of the kidney. Here, we explored the bladder microbiome, metabolome, and cytokine profiles in SLE patients, as well as correlations between microbiome and metabolome, cytokines, and disease profiles. Methods and materials: We recruited a cohort of 50 SLE patients and 50 individually matched asymptomatic controls. We used transurethral catheterization to collect urine samples, 16S rRNA gene sequencing to profile bladder microbiomes, and LC-MS/MS to perform untargeted metabolomic profiling. Results: Compared to controls, SLE patients possessed a unique bladder microbial community and increased alpha diversity. These differences were accompanied by differences in urinary metabolomes, cytokines, and patients’ disease profiles. The SLE-enriched genera, including Bacteroides, were positively correlated with several SLE-enriched metabolites, including olopatadine. The SLE-depleted genera, such as Pseudomonas, were negatively correlated to SLE-depleted cytokines, including IL-8. Alteration of the bladder microbiome was associated with disease profile. For example, the genera Megamonas and Phocaeicola were negatively correlated with serum complement C3, and Streptococcus was positively correlated with IgG. Conclusions: Our present study reveals associations between the bladder microbiome and the urinary metabolome, cytokines, and disease phenotypes. Our results could help identify biomarkers for SLE.

Christina L. Elling ◽  
Melissa A. Scholes ◽  
Sven-Olrik Streubel ◽  
Eric D. Larson ◽  
Todd M. Wine ◽  

Otitis media (OM) is a leading cause of childhood hearing loss. Variants in FUT2, which encodes alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase, were identified to increase susceptibility to OM, potentially through shifts in the middle ear (ME) or nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiotas as mediated by transcriptional changes. Greater knowledge of differences in relative abundance of otopathogens in carriers of pathogenic variants can help determine risk for OM in patients. In order to determine the downstream effects of FUT2 variation, we examined gene expression in relation to carriage of a common pathogenic FUT2 c.461G&gt;A (p.Trp154*) variant using RNA-sequence data from saliva samples from 28 patients with OM. Differential gene expression was also examined in bulk mRNA and single-cell RNA-sequence data from wildtype mouse ME mucosa after inoculation with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). In addition, microbiotas were profiled from ME and NP samples of 65 OM patients using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In human carriers of the FUT2 variant, FN1, KMT2D, MUC16 and NBPF20 were downregulated while MTAP was upregulated. Post-infectious expression in the mouse ME recapitulated these transcriptional differences, with the exception of Fn1 upregulation after NTHi-inoculation. In the NP, Candidate Division TM7 was associated with wildtype genotype (FDR-adj-p=0.009). Overall, the FUT2 c.461G&gt;A variant was associated with transcriptional changes in processes related to response to infection and with increased load of potential otopathogens in the ME and decreased commensals in the NP. These findings provide increased understanding of how FUT2 variants influence gene transcription and the mucosal microbiota, and thus contribute to the pathology of OM.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 170
Andrey L. Rakitin ◽  
Shahjahon Begmatov ◽  
Alexey V. Beletsky ◽  
Dmitriy A. Philippov ◽  
Vitaly V. Kadnikov ◽  

Large areas in the northern hemisphere are covered by extensive wetlands, which represent a complex mosaic of raised bogs, eutrophic fens, and aapa mires all in proximity to each other. Aapa mires differ from other types of wetlands by their concave surface, heavily watered by the central part, as well as by the presence of large-patterned string-flark complexes. In this paper, we characterized microbial diversity patterns in the surface peat layers of the neighboring string and flark structures located within the mire site in the Vologda region of European North Russia, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The microbial communities in raised strings were clearly distinct from those in submerged flarks. Strings were dominated by the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Other abundant groups were the Acidobacteriota, Bacteroidota, Verrucomicrobiota, Actinobacteriota, and Planctomycetota. Archaea accounted for only 0.4% of 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from strings. By contrast, they comprised about 22% of all sequences in submerged flarks and mostly belonged to methanogenic lineages. Methanotrophs were nearly absent. Other flark-specific microorganisms included the phyla Chloroflexi, Spirochaetota, Desulfobacterota, Beijerinckiaceae- and Rhodomicrobiaceae-affiliated Alphaproteobacteria, and uncultivated groups env.OPS_17 and vadinHA17 of the Bacteroidota. Such pattern probably reflects local anaerobic conditions in the submerged peat layers in flarks.

Chen Zheng-li ◽  
Peng Yu ◽  
Wu Guo-sheng ◽  
Hong Xu-Dong ◽  
Fan Hao ◽  

Abstract Burns destroy the skin barrier and alter the resident bacterial community, thereby facilitating bacterial infection. To treat a wound infection, it is necessary to understand the changes in the wound bacterial community structure. However, traditional bacterial cultures allow the identification of only readily growing or purposely cultured bacterial species and lack the capacity to detect changes in the bacterial community. In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to detect alterations in the bacterial community structure in deep partial-thickness burn wounds on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats. These results were then compared with those obtained from the bacterial culture. Bacterial samples were collected prior to wounding and 1, 7, 14, and 21 days after wounding. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the number of resident bacterial species decreased after the burn. Both resident bacterial richness and diversity, which were significantly reduced after the burn, recovered following wound healing. The dominant resident strains also changed, but the inhibition of bacterial community structure was in a non-volatile equilibrium state, even in the early stage after healing. Furthermore, the correlation between wound and environmental bacteria increased with the occurrence of burns. Hence, the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis reflected the bacterial condition of the wounds better than the bacterial culture. 16S rRNA sequencing in the Sprague-Dawley rat burn model can provide more information for the prevention and treatment of burn infections in clinical settings and promote further development in this field.

2022 ◽  
Tingting Qiao ◽  
Ganghua Lu ◽  
Zhongwei Lv ◽  
Dan Li ◽  
Chengyou Jia ◽  

Abstract BackgroundThe practices of monks mainly include long-term vegetarianism and meditation, which are likely to fundamentally influence the gut microbiota and fecal metabolites. We aim to study the relationship between the practices of Chinese monks and gut microbiotas and metabolites.MethodsTwenty-four monks and forty-eight omnivorous controls (never meditated) were included. The microbiotas of all samples were profiled by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the metabolomes were examined by nontargeted LC–MS metabolomics. Twenty-four monks were divided into the H group and the L group according to the median time of practice, and microbiota and metabolite analyses were carried out in the two groups.ResultsMicrobial communities and metabolites were decreased in monks. Bacteroidetes was increased in monks, while the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratios were decreased. At the genus level, Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, Roseburia, norank_f__Lachnospiraceae, etc. were higher in monks, while Blautia, Eubacterium__hallii_group, Bifidobacteria, etc. were lower (all p < 0.05). Most identical KEGG categories in both Tax4Fun and PICRUSt2 were related to metabolism (6/8, 75.0%). Most higher abundance genera were positively correlated with higher abundance metabolites in monks, indicating that intestinal flora significantly affects intestinal metabolic function. Lipids and lipid-like molecules were the major differential metabolites (VIP >2, p < 0.05) in the two groups. L-dopa plays an important role in many metabolic pathways in monks. Prevotella_9 was enriched in the L group, while norank_f__Lachnospiraceae was enriched in the H group. DG (16:0/18:0/0:0) was highly expressed in the H group and participated in sixteen KEGG functional pathways as well as many immune-related KEGG enrichment pathways.ConclusionThe monks' lifestyle practices of vegetarianism and meditation have the potential to modulate human metabolism and function by affecting the gut microbial composition and metabolites. The appropriate practice of monks makes the intestine younger and increases immunity, but long-term practice may cause adverse physical and mental events.

Ji-Yeon Cheon ◽  
Hyunjoon Cho ◽  
Mincheol Kim ◽  
Hyun Je Park ◽  
Tae-Yoon Park ◽  

Gut microbiome is vertically transmitted by maternal lactation at birth in mammals. In this study, we investigated the gut microbiome and diet compositions of muskox, a large herbivore in the high Arctic. From muskox feces in Ella Island, East Greenland, we compared the microbiota composition using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the dietary compositions of six female adults and four calves have been compared. Firmicutes was the most abundant bacterial phylum in both adults and calves, comprising 94.36% and 94.03%, respectively. There were significant differences in the relative abundance of two Firmicutes families: the adults were mainly dominated by Ruminococcaceae (73.90%), while the calves were dominated by both Ruminococcaceae (56.25%) and Lachnospiraceae (24.00%). Stable isotope analysis on the feces and eight referential plant samples in the study area showed that both adults and calves had similar ranges of 13C and 15N, possibly derived from the dominant diet plants of Empetrum nigrum and Salix glauca. Despite the similar diets, the different gut microbiome compositions in muskox adults and calves indicate that the gut microbiome of the calves may not be fully colonized yet as much as the one of the adults.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elizabeth A. Suter ◽  
Maria Pachiadaki ◽  
Gordon T. Taylor ◽  
Virginia P. Edgcomb

Oxygen-depleted water columns (ODWCs) host a diverse community of eukaryotic protists that change dramatically in composition over the oxic-anoxic gradient. In the permanently anoxic Cariaco Basin, peaks in eukaryotic diversity occurred in layers where dark microbial activity (chemoautotrophy and heterotrophy) were highest, suggesting a link between prokaryotic activity and trophic associations with protists. Using 18S rRNA gene sequencing, parasites and especially the obligate parasitic clade, Syndiniales, appear to be particularly abundant, suggesting parasitism is an important, but overlooked interaction in ODWC food webs. Syndiniales were also associated with certain prokaryotic groups that are often found in ODWCs, including Marinimicrobia and Marine Group II archaea, evocative of feedbacks between parasitic infection events, release of organic matter, and prokaryotic assimilative activity. In a network analysis that included all three domains of life, bacterial and archaeal taxa were putative bottleneck and hub species, while a large proportion of edges were connected to eukaryotic nodes. Inclusion of parasites resulted in a more complex network with longer path lengths between members. Together, these results suggest that protists, and especially protistan parasites, play an important role in maintaining microbial food web complexity, particularly in ODWCs, where protist diversity and microbial productivity are high, but energy resources are limited relative to euphotic waters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yuqing He ◽  
Francesco Tiezzi ◽  
Jeremy Howard ◽  
Yijian Huang ◽  
Kent Gray ◽  

Abstract Background The interplay between the gut microbiota and feeding behavior has consequences for host metabolism and health. The present study aimed to explore gut microbiota overall influence on feeding behavior traits and to identify specific microbes associated with the traits in three commercial swine breeds at three growth stages. Feeding behavior measures were obtained from 651 pigs of three breeds (Duroc, Landrace, and Large White) from an average 73 to 163 days of age. Seven feeding behavior traits covered the information of feed intake, feeder occupation time, feeding rate, and the number of visits to the feeder. Rectal swabs were collected from each pig at 73 ± 3, 123 ± 4, and 158 ± 4 days of age. DNA was extracted and subjected to 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Differences in feeding behavior traits among breeds during each period were found. The proportion of phenotypic variances of feeding behavior explained by the gut microbial composition was small to moderate (ranged from 0.09 to 0.31). A total of 21, 10, and 35 amplicon sequence variants were found to be significantly (q-value < 0.05) associated with feeding behavior traits for Duroc, Landrace, and Large White across the three sampling time points. The identified amplicon sequence variants were annotated to five phyla, with Firmicutes being the most abundant. Those amplicon sequence variants were assigned to 28 genera, mainly including Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-004, Dorea, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014, and Marvinbryantia. Conclusions This study demonstrated the importance of the gut microbial composition in interacting with the host feeding behavior and identified multiple archaea and bacteria associated with feeding behavior measures in pigs from either Duroc, Landrace, or Large White breeds at three growth stages. Our study provides insight into the interaction between gut microbiota and feeding behavior and highlights the genetic background and age effects in swine microbial studies.

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