amplicon sequencing
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Kimberley G. Barrett ◽  
Geneviève Amaral ◽  
Melanie Elphinstone ◽  
Malcolm L. McAdie ◽  
Corey S. Davis ◽  

AbstractCaptive breeding is often a last resort management option in the conservation of endangered species which can in turn lead to increased risk of inbreeding depression and loss of genetic diversity. Thus, recording breeding events via studbook for the purpose of estimating relatedness, and facilitating mating pair selection to minimize inbreeding, is common practice. However, as founder relatedness is often unknown, loss of genetic variation and inbreeding cannot be entirely avoided. Molecular genotyping is slowly being adopted in captive breeding programs, however achieving sufficient resolution can be challenging in small, low diversity, populations. Here, we evaluate the success of the Vancouver Island marmot (Marmota vancouverensis; VIM; among the worlds most endangered mammals) captive breeding program in preventing inbreeding and maintaining genetic diversity. We explored the use of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of microsatellite regions to assay greater genetic variation in both captive and wild populations than traditional length-based fragment analysis. Contrary to other studies, this method did not considerably increase diversity estimates, suggesting: (1) that the technique does not universally improve resolution, and (2) VIM have exceedingly low diversity. Studbook estimates of pairwise relatedness and inbreeding in the current population were weakly, but positively, correlated to molecular estimates. Thus, current studbooks are moderately effective at predicting genetic similarity when founder relatedness is known. Finally, we found that captive and wild populations did not differ in allelic frequencies, and conservation efforts to maintain diversity have been successful with no significant decrease in diversity over the last three generations.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Wannes Hugo R. Van Hassel ◽  
Mirjana Andjelkovic ◽  
Benoit Durieu ◽  
Viviana Almanza Marroquin ◽  
Julien Masquelier ◽  

In the context of increasing occurrences of toxic cyanobacterial blooms worldwide, their monitoring in Belgium is currently performed by regional environmental agencies (in two of three regions) using different protocols and is restricted to some selected recreational ponds and lakes. Therefore, a global assessment based on the comparison of existing datasets is not possible. For this study, 79 water samples from a monitoring of five lakes in Wallonia and occasional blooms in Flanders and Brussels, including a canal, were analyzed. A Liquid Chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method allowed to detect and quantify eight microcystin congeners. The mcyE gene was detected using PCR, while dominant cyanobacterial species were identified using 16S RNA amplification and direct sequencing. The cyanobacterial diversity for two water samples was characterized with amplicon sequencing. Microcystins were detected above limit of quantification (LOQ) in 68 water samples, and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended guideline value for microcystins in recreational water (24 µg L−1) was surpassed in 18 samples. The microcystin concentrations ranged from 0.11 µg L−1 to 2798.81 µg L−1 total microcystin. For 45 samples, the dominance of the genera Microcystis sp., Dolichospermum sp., Aphanizomenon sp., Cyanobium/Synechococcus sp., Planktothrix sp., Romeria sp., Cyanodictyon sp., and Phormidium sp. was shown. Moreover, the mcyE gene was detected in 75.71% of all the water samples.

2022 ◽  
Jessica M Blanton ◽  
Logan M Peoples ◽  
Mackenzie E Gerringer ◽  
Caroline M Iacuniello ◽  
Natalya D Gallo ◽  

Hadal snailfishes are the deepest-living fishes in the ocean, inhabiting trenches from depths of ~6,000 to 8,000 m. While the microbial communities in trench environments have begun to be characterized, the microbes associated with hadal megafauna remain relatively unknown. Here, we describe the gut microbiomes of two hadal snailfishes, Pseudoliparis swirei (Mariana Trench) and Notoliparis kermadecensis (Kermadec Trench) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We contextualize these microbiomes with comparisons to the abyssal macrourid Coryphaenoides yaquinae and the continental shelf-dwelling snailfish Careproctus melanurus. The microbial communities of the hadal snailfishes were distinct from their shallower counterparts and were dominated by the same sequences related to the Mycoplasmataceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. These shared taxa indicate that symbiont lineages may have remained similar to the ancestral symbiont since their geographic separation or that they are dispersed between geographically distant trenches and subsequently colonize specific hosts. The abyssal and hadal fishes contained sequences related to known, cultured piezophiles, microbes that grow optimally under high hydrostatic pressure, including Psychromonas, Moritella, and Shewanella. These taxa are adept at colonizing nutrient-rich environments present in the deep ocean, such as on particles and in the guts of hosts, and we hypothesize they could make a dietary contribution to deep-sea fishes by degrading chitin and producing fatty acids. We characterize the gut microbiota within some of the deepest fishes to provide new insight into the diversity and distribution of host-associated microbial taxa and the potential of these animals, and the microbes they harbor, for understanding adaptation to deep-sea habitats.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Tadashi Maeda ◽  
Hiroaki Zai ◽  
Yuto Fukui ◽  
Yoshifumi Kato ◽  
Eri Kumade ◽  

Abstract Background The bioactivities of commensal duodenal microbiota greatly influence the biofunction of hosts. We investigated the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in extra-gastroduodenal diseases by determining the impact of H. pylori infection on the duodenal microbiota. We sequenced 16 S rRNA genes in samples aspirated from the descending duodenum of 47 (male, 20; female, 27) individuals who were screened for gastric cancer. Samples were analysed using 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and the LEFSe and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes methods were used to determine whether the duodenal microflora and microbial biofunctions were affected using H. pylori infection. Results Thirteen and 34 participants tested positive and negative for H. pylori, respectively. We identified 1,404 bacterial operational taxonomic units from 23 phyla and 253 genera. H. pylori infection changed the relative mean abundance of three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and TM7) and ten genera (Neisseria, Rothia, TM7-3, Leptotrichia, Lachnospiraceae, Megasphaera, F16, Moryella, Filifactor, and Paludibacter). Microbiota features were significantly influenced in H. pylori-positive participants by 12 taxa mostly classified as Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial functional annotation revealed that H. pylori significantly affected 12 microbial metabolic pathways. Conclusions H. pylori disrupted normal bacterial communities in the duodenum and changed the biofunctions of commensal microbiota primarily by upregulating specific metabolic pathways. Such upregulation may be involved in the onset of diseases associated with H. pylori infection.

Edina Klein ◽  
Janek Weiler ◽  
Michael Wagner ◽  
Minja Čelikić ◽  
Christof M. Niemeyer ◽  

Abstract Wastewater treatment using aerobic granular sludge has gained increasing interest due to its advantages compared to conventional activated sludge. The technology allows simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in a single reactor system and is independent of space-intensive settling tanks. However, due to the microscale, an analysis of processes and microbial population along the radius of granules is challenging. Here, we introduce a model system for aerobic granular sludge on a small scale by using a machine-assisted microfluidic cultivation platform. With an implemented logic module that controls solenoid valves, we realized alternating oxic hunger and anoxic feeding phases for the biofilms growing within. Sampling during ongoing anoxic cultivation directly from the cultivation channel was achieved with a robotic sampling device. Analysis of the biofilms was conducted using optical coherence tomography, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and amplicon sequencing. Using this setup, it was possible to significantly enrich the percentage of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) belonging to the family Rhodocyclaceae in the community compared to the starting inoculum. With the aid of this miniature model system, it is now possible to investigate the influence of a multitude of process parameters in a highly parallel way to understand and efficiently optimize aerobic granular sludge-based wastewater treatment systems.Key points• Development of a microfluidic model to study EBPR.• Feast-famine regime enriches polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs).• Microfluidics replace sequencing batch reactors for aerobic granular sludge research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Christopher S. Ward ◽  
Zoie Diana ◽  
Kate Meicong Ke ◽  
Beatriz Orihuela ◽  
Thomas P. Schultz ◽  

Plastics of various chemistries pollute global water bodies. Toxic chemicals leach with detrimental and often unpredictable impacts on the surrounding ecosystems. We found that seawater leachates of plastic pre-production pellets from 7 recycle categories are acutely toxic to stage II barnacle nauplii; lethal concentration 50 (LC50s) were observed in 24-h leachates from dilutions ranging from 0.007 to 2.1 mg/mL of seawater. Based on previous observations that macro-organismal settlement on fouling management coatings of various toxicities can be used to predict the toxicity of the coating, we hypothesized that interaction of plastic pre-production pellets with emerging microbiomes would exhibit patterns indicative of the chemistry at the pellet surface. We used amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes to characterize the microbiomes that developed from 8 through 70 days on pellets exposed to the same flowing ambient seawater. Diversity and composition of the microbiomes colonizing plastic pellets changed over time and varied with plastic type. Microbial taxa belong to taxonomic groups known to consume hydrocarbons, to be prevalent following marine oil spills, or to live on fouling management surfaces. Microbiomes were still distinct between plastic types at Day 70, suggesting that differences in the physicochemical characteristics of the underlying plastics continue to exert variable selection of surface microbial communities. A random forest-based sample classifier correctly predicted 93% of plastic types using microbiome compositions. Surface microbiomes have promise for use in forensically identifying plastic types and potential toxicities.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 355
Barbara Zapała ◽  
Tomasz Stefura ◽  
Tomasz Milewicz ◽  
Julia Wątor ◽  
Monika Piwowar ◽  

The type of diet not only affects the composition of the oral microflora but is also one of the more critical factors associated with an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease, PD. This study compared diet preferences and oral microbiota profiles in patients with PD vs. healthy controls. This study compared the oral microbiota composition of 59 patients with PD and 108 healthy controls (without neurodegeneration) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. According to results, oral microbiota in patients with PD is different compared from healthy controls. In particular, decreased abundance of Proteobacteria, Pastescibacteria, and Tenercutes was observed. The oral cavity of patients with PD was characterized by the high relative abundance of bacteria from the genera Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Lactobaccillus. There were also differences in food preferences between patients with PD and healthy controls, which revealed significantly higher intake of margarine, fish, red meat, cereals products, avocado, and olives in the patients with PD relative to healthy controls. Strong positive and negative correlations between specific food products and microbial taxa were identified.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
In-Soon Roh ◽  
Yong-Chan Kim ◽  
Sae-Young Won ◽  
Kyung-Je Park ◽  
Hoo-Chang Park ◽  

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a deleterious brain proteinopathy caused by a pathogenic form of prion protein (PrPSc), which is converted from a benign form of prion protein (PrPC) encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP). In elk, the M132L single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the PRNP gene likely plays a pivotal role in susceptibility to CWD. However, the association of the M132L SNP with susceptibility to CWD has not been evaluated in Korean elk to date. To estimate the association of the M132L SNP with susceptibility to CWD in Korean elk, we investigated the genotype and allele frequencies of the M132L SNP by amplicon sequencing and performed association analysis between CWD-positive and CWD-negative elk. In addition, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the M132L SNP and susceptibility to CWD in quantitatively synthesized elk populations. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of the M132L SNP on elk PrP using in silico programs, including PolyPhen-2, PROVEAN, AMYCO and Swiss-PdbViewer. We did not identify a significant association between the M132L SNP of PRNP and susceptibility to CWD in Korean elk. The meta-analysis also did not identify a strong association between the M132L SNP of PRNP and susceptibility to CWD in quantitatively synthesized elk populations. Furthermore, we did not observe significant changes in structure, amyloid propensity or electrostatic potential based on the M132L SNP in elk PrP. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report of an association analysis and meta-analysis in Korean elk and quantitatively synthesized elk populations, respectively.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 174
Cherry Yin-Yi Chang ◽  
An-Jen Chiang ◽  
Ming-Tsung Lai ◽  
Man-Ju Yan ◽  
Chung-Chen Tseng ◽  

Infection-induced chronic inflammation is common in patients with endometriosis. Although microbial communities in the reproductive tracts of patients have been reported, little was known about their dynamic profiles during disease progression and complication development. Microbial communities in cervical mucus were collected by cervical swabs from 10 healthy women and 23 patients, and analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The abundance, ecological relationships and functional networks of microbiota were characterized according to their prevalence, clinical stages, and clinical features including deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE), CA125, pain score and infertility. Cervical microbiome can be altered during endometriosis development and progression with a tendency of increased Firmicutes and decreased Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Distinct from vaginal microbiome, upregulation of Lactobacillus, in combination with increased Streptococcus and decreased Dialister, was frequently associated with advanced endometriosis stages, DIE, higher CA125 levels, severe pain, and infertility. Significantly, reduced richness and diversity of cervical microbiome were detected in patients with more severe clinical symptoms. Clinical treatments against infertility can partially reverse the ecological balance of microbes through remodeling nutrition metabolism and transport and cell-cell/cell-matrix interaction. This study provides a new understanding on endometriosis development and a more diverse cervical microbiome may be beneficial for patients to have better clinical outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Takashi Okada ◽  
Xin Sun ◽  
Stephen McIlfatrick ◽  
Justin C St. John

ABSTRACT Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation in vertebrates has been hotly debated for over 40 years. Most contrasting results have been reported following bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) analyses. We addressed whether BS-seq experimental and analysis conditions influenced the estimation of the levels of methylation in specific mtDNA sequences. We found false positive non-CpG methylation in the CHH context (fpCHH) using unmethylated Sus scrofa mtDNA BS-seq data. fpCHH methylation was detected on the top/plus strand of mtDNA within low guanine content regions. These top/plus strand sequences of fpCHH regions would become extremely AT-rich sequences after BS-conversion, whilst bottom/minus strand sequences remained almost unchanged. These unique sequences caused BS-seq aligners to falsely assign the origin of each strand in fpCHH regions, resulting in false methylation calls. fpCHH methylation detection was enhanced by short sequence reads, short library inserts, skewed top/bottom read ratios and non-directional read mapping modes. We confirmed no detectable CHH methylation in fpCHH regions by BS-amplicon sequencing. The fpCHH peaks were located in the D-loop, ATP6, ND2, ND4L, ND5 and ND6 regions and identified in our S. scrofa ovary and oocyte data and human BS-seq data sets. We conclude that non-CpG methylation could potentially be overestimated in specific sequence regions by BS-seq analysis.

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