modified diet
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
N. M. Ali ◽  
N. Arshad ◽  
S. Sajjad ◽  
F. Rashid ◽  

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .

2021 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. S677
C. Venturini ◽  
P. Orlandoni ◽  
N. Jukic Peladic ◽  
D. Sparvoli ◽  
G. Giulioni ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 119
Fiona Byrne ◽  
Barbara Gillman ◽  
Brendan Palmer ◽  
Mairead Kiely ◽  
Joseph Eustace ◽  

Background: Potential dietary strategies for controlling hyperphosphataemia include the use of protein sources with lower phosphorus bioavailability such as pulses and nuts, focus on phosphorus to protein ratios and the avoidance of all phosphate additives. Methods: We conducted a controlled crossover feeding study in 8 haemodialysis (HD) patients to investigate the acute postprandial effect of a modified versus standard low phosphorus diet for one day on serum phosphate, potassium and intact parathyroid levels in prevalent HD patients. Each participant consumed the modified diet on one day and the standard diet on a second day one week apart. The modified diet included beef and less dairy, with a lower phosphorus to protein ratio, as well as plant-based protein, whole grains, pulses and nuts containing phytates which reduces phosphorus bioavailability. Both diets were tailored for each participant to provide 1.1g protein/kg ideal body weight. Participants provided fasting bloods before breakfast, a pre-prandial sample before the lunch time main meal and samples at one-hour intervals for the four hours after the lunch time main meal, for analysis of phosphate, potassium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH). Results: At four hours post the lunch time main meal on each study day, individuals on the modified diet had serum phosphate readings 0.30 mmol/l lower than when on the standard diet (p-value = 0.015, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.57, -0.04). The corresponding change in serum potassium at four hours was a decrease of 0.675 mmol/l (p-value = 0.011, CI -1.25, -0.10). Conclusions: Decreases in both serum phosphate and serum potassium readings on a modified low phosphorus diet encourage further larger studies to explore the possibility of greater food choice and healthier plant-based diets in HD patients. registration: NCT04845724 (15/04/2021)

Melissa M. Winder ◽  
Senthuran Vijayarajah ◽  
Ron W. Reeder ◽  
Emilee T. Glenn ◽  
Rohin Moza ◽  

S. A. Derbeneva ◽  
T. S. Zaletova ◽  
N. N. Shaposhnikovа ◽  
A. V. Starodubova

Purpose. The aim of the study was to develop a technology for dietary correction of nutritional and metabolic status disorders in patients with coronary heart disease with concomitant obesity in the system for comprehensive preoperative preparation.Material and Methods. The study was performed in the Department of Cardiovascular Pathology and Diet Therapy of the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety. The study comprised a total of 76 patients with coronary artery disease and obesity who required surgical myocardial revascularization and received the course of specialized targeted diet therapy. Patients were assigned to two groups: control group comprised 16 men and 25 women aged 65.6 ± 1.37 years; main group comprised 12 men and 20 women aged 66.0 ± 1.87 years. Patients of control group received a reduced calorie diet during 30-day treatment. Patients of main group additionally received a specialized food product for therapeutic dietary nutrition developed specifically for this category of patients (modified diet therapy). The effects of diet therapy on the parameters of nutritional and metabolic status were assessed.Results. The study showed that administration of modified diet therapy allowed to achieve more pronounced reduction of body weight and body mass index as well as optimization of body composition, basal metabolic rate, and blood lipid profile including a significantly more pronounced decreases in the levels of total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.05), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.01), and atherogenic coefficient (p < 0.01).Conclusion. The proposed technology of nutritional care for patients with coronary artery disease and obesity may be used for the purpose of preoperative preparation for surgical myocardial revascularization.

Iram Liaqat ◽  
Arjumand Iqbal Durrani ◽  
Urooj Zafar ◽  
Saima Rubab ◽  
Mehwish Faheem ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (14) ◽  
pp. 7692
Ellen Niederberger ◽  
Michael J. Parnham

It is well known that lifestyle changes can alter several physiological functions in the human body. For exercise and diet, these effects are used sensibly in basic therapies, as in cardiovascular diseases. However, the physiological changes induced by exercise and a modified diet also have the capacity to influence the efficacy and toxicity of several drugs, mainly by affecting different pharmacokinetic mechanisms. This pharmacological plasticity is not clinically relevant in all cases but might play an important role in altering the effects of very common drugs, particularly drugs with a narrow therapeutic window. Therefore, with this review, we provide insights into possible food–drug and exercise–drug interactions to sharpen awareness of the potential occurrence of such effects.

Zoo Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Elizabeth Braatz ◽  
Jamie Sincage ◽  
Zachariah J. Gezon ◽  
Lily T. Maynard ◽  
Amanda Ardente ◽  

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (11) ◽  
pp. 3316
Anthony J. Pellicano ◽  
Kiera Spahn ◽  
Ping Zhou ◽  
Itzhak D. Goldberg ◽  
Prakash Narayan

Left untreated, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and end-stage liver disease. To date, few if any therapies have proven effective against NASH with fibrosis. Quantification and qualification of hepatic scar might enable development of more effective targeted therapies. In a murine model of NASH induced by diet, we characterized fibrillar collagen deposition within the hepatic parenchyma. At harvest, livers from the modified diet cohort exhibited NASH with fibrosis. Transcriptomic analysis of hepatic tissue revealed increased col1a1, col1a2, and col3a1, each of which correlated directly with hepatic hydroxyproline content. Circular polarized microscopic analysis of Picrosirius red-stained liver sections revealed deposition of collagen type I within the parenchyma. Development of therapeutics designed to mitigate collagen type I accumulation might prove effective in NASH with fibrosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Anne Green

Prior to the introduction of newborn screening, Phenylketonuria (PKU) was a devastating disorder with affected individuals usually committed to a life in care in large institutions (asylums). Newborn screening only began after it was shown that those with PKU could be treated with a modified diet and could subsequently lead normal lives. The first production of a diet and the demonstration of its effectiveness was thus a key milestone in the history of both PKU and newborn screening, and took place in Birmingham, UK, in 1951. The pioneers were a two-year-old girl called Sheila Jones, her mother Mary, and three dedicated professionals at Birmingham Children’s Hospital: Evelyn Hickmans, John Gerrard and Horst Bickel. Together, they changed the course of PKU for those across the world. This review summarises the history and achievements of this team who opened the door to PKU treatment and the introduction of newborn screening.

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