scholarly journals Recent developments in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) management and potential antimicrobial alternatives to combat the antibiotic resistance challenge: A review

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
Saleha Mahnoor Faheem
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (5) ◽  
pp. 420
Tanveer Ali ◽  
Abdul Basit ◽  
Asad Mustafa Karim ◽  
Jung-Hun Lee ◽  
Jeong-Ho Jeon ◽  

β-Lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins and inhibit the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a crucial step in cell wall biosynthesis. Staphylococcus aureus acquires resistance against β-lactam antibiotics by producing a penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a), encoded by the mecA gene. PBP2a participates in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and exhibits a poor affinity towards β-lactam antibiotics. The current study was performed to determine the diversity and the role of missense mutations of PBP2a in the antibiotic resistance mechanism. The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from clinical samples were identified using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. The highest frequency (60%, 18 out of 30) of MRSA was observed in wound specimens. Sequence variation analysis of the mecA gene showed four amino acid substitutions (i.e., E239K, E239R, G246E, and E447K). The E239R mutation was found to be novel. The protein-ligand docking results showed that the E239R mutation in the allosteric site of PBP2a induces conformational changes in the active site and, thus, hinders its interaction with cefoxitin. Therefore, the present report indicates that mutation in the allosteric site of PBP2a provides a more closed active site conformation than wide-type PBP2a and then causes the high-level resistance to cefoxitin.

2019 ◽  
Raja Ram Gurung ◽  
Prashanna Maharjan ◽  
Ganga GC

Abstract Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important superbugs distributed throughout the world. It causes minor skin infections to severe complications including nosocomial infections in both hospitals and community settings. These strains have multi-drug resistant property. Hence, they are difficult to manage which increase health-related costs and simultaneously intensifying the need for new antibiotics. The extent of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in children is largely unknown. The study determines the current status of S. aureus and MRSA causing various infections in pediatric patients visiting International Friendship Children’s Hospital (IFCH). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients visiting a hospital. Various clinical specimens were aseptically collected and processed according to standard microbiological procedures. Isolation and identification of S. aureus were done by microscopy, mannitol fermentation, and coagulase positivity. All identified S. aureus isolates subjected to in-vitro antibiogram by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique adopting Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline. Isolates resistant to cefoxitin were considered to be MRSA. Whereas, isolates produced D-shaped inhibition zone around clindamycin when kept near erythromycin were considered to be Inducible Clindamycin Resistant (ICR). Results: 672 various types of clinical samples were processed from the microbiology laboratory from June and November 2015. Out of 300 culture positive samples, 52 (17.3%) were S. aureus isolates, among them 39 (75.0%) were found to be MRSA. The D-test showed that Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin-B (MLSB) phenotype was 15.4%. Conclusion: The study shows the MRSA occurrence is prevalent in pediatric patients and newer classes’ drugs are found more effective than β-lactam drugs to treat S. aureus infection. However, restriction on the indiscriminate use of such drugs may be an effective strategy to control the drug resistance. Keywords: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B (MLSB) phenotype, Inducible Clindamycin Resistant (ICR) test or D-zone test, Antibiotic resistance, Nepal

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