antagonistic interactions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Fang Yang ◽  
Yi Sun ◽  
Qiaoyun Lu

Abstract Background This study was aimed to determine the potency of Minocycline (MIN) and azoles, including itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR) and posaconazole (POS) against Scedosporium and Lomentospora species. Results This study revealed that MIN exhibited no significant antifungal activity against any of the tested strains, whereas in vitro combination of MIN with ITR, VOR or POS showed satisfactory synergistic effects against 8 (80%), 1 (10%), and 9 (90%) strains, respectively. Moreover, combined use of MIN with azoles decreased the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range from 5.33–16 μg/ml to 1–16 μg/ml for ITR, from 0.42–16 μg/ml to 0.21–16 μg/ml for VOR, and from 1.33–16 μg/ml to 0.33–16 μg/ml for POS. Meanwhile, no antagonistic interactions were observed between the above combinations. The G. mellonella infection model demonstrated the in vivo synergistic antifungal effect of MIN and azoles. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that combinations between MIN and azoles lead to synergistic antimicrobial effects on Scedosporium and Lomentospora species, while showing a potential for overcoming and preventing azole resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Felipe de Vargas Ribeiro ◽  
Taiara Aguiar Caires ◽  
Marcela Alvarenga de Almeida Simões ◽  
Paulo Iiboshi Hargreaves ◽  
Livia Bonetti Villela ◽  

Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are conspicuous components of coral reef communities, where they play key ecological roles as primary producers among others. BCMs often bloom and might outcompete neighboring benthic organisms, including reef-building corals. We investigated the cyanobacterial species composition of three BCMs morphotypes from the marginal reef complex of Abrolhos Bank (Southeastern Brazil). Also, we assessed their allelopathic effects on coral zooxanthellae, their susceptibility to herbivory by fish, and their toxicity to brine shrimp nauplii. Morphology and 16S rDNA sequencing unveiled the cyanobacteria Moorena bouillonii, Okeania erythroflocculosa, Adonisia turfae, Leptolyngbya sp., and Halomicronema sp. as components of BCMs from Abrolhos. BCMs cell-free filtrates and extracts exerted an allelopathic effect by reducing the growth of the ex hospite Symbiodinium sp. in culture. BCMs-only treatments remained untouched in field susceptibility assays in contrast to macroalgae only and mixed BCMs-macroalgae treatments that had the macroalgae fully removed by reef fish. Crude aqueous extracts from BCMs were toxic to brine shrimps in acute assays. Besides unveiling the diversity of BCMs consortia in Abrolhos, our results cast some light on their allelopathy, antiherbivory, and toxicity properties. These antagonistic interactions might promote adverse cascading effects during benthic cyanobacteria blooms and in gradual shifts to BCMs-dominated states.

2022 ◽  
pp. 109332
Dongxin Ma ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Kaiou Han ◽  
Leping Wang ◽  
Yajie Cao ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2020956119
Anshuman Swain ◽  
Levi Fussell ◽  
William F. Fagan

The assembly and maintenance of microbial diversity in natural communities, despite the abundance of toxin-based antagonistic interactions, presents major challenges for biological understanding. A common framework for investigating such antagonistic interactions involves cyclic dominance games with pairwise interactions. The incorporation of higher-order interactions in such models permits increased levels of microbial diversity, especially in communities in which antibiotic-producing, sensitive, and resistant strains coexist. However, most such models involve a small number of discrete species, assume a notion of pure cyclic dominance, and focus on low mutation rate regimes, none of which well represent the highly interlinked, quickly evolving, and continuous nature of microbial phenotypic space. Here, we present an alternative vision of spatial dynamics for microbial communities based on antagonistic interactions—one in which a large number of species interact in continuous phenotypic space, are capable of rapid mutation, and engage in both direct and higher-order interactions mediated by production of and resistance to antibiotics. Focusing on toxin production, vulnerability, and inhibition among species, we observe highly divergent patterns of diversity and spatial community dynamics. We find that species interaction constraints (rather than mobility) best predict spatiotemporal disturbance regimes, whereas community formation time, mobility, and mutation size best explain patterns of diversity. We also report an intriguing relationship among community formation time, spatial disturbance regimes, and diversity dynamics. This relationship, which suggests that both higher-order interactions and rapid evolution are critical for the origin and maintenance of microbial diversity, has broad-ranging links to the maintenance of diversity in other systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Peng Jin ◽  
Jiale Zhang ◽  
Jiaofeng Wan ◽  
Sebastian Overmans ◽  
Guang Gao ◽  

Ocean acidification (OA) may interact with anthropogenic pollutants, such as heavy metals (HM), to represent a threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. Here, we perform a quantitative meta-analysis to examine the combined effects of OA and heavy metals on marine organisms. The results reveal predominantly additive interactions (67%), with a considerable proportion of synergistic interactions (25%) and a few antagonistic interactions (8%). The overall adverse effects of heavy metals on marine organisms were alleviated by OA, leading to a neutral impact of heavy metals in combination with OA. However, different taxonomic groups showed large variabilities in their responses, with microalgae being the most sensitive when exposed to heavy metals and OA, and having the highest proportion of antagonistic interactions. Furthermore, the variations in interaction type frequencies are related to climate regions and heavy metal properties, with antagonistic interactions accounting for the highest proportion in temperate regions (28%) and when exposed to Zn (52%). Our study provides a comprehensive insight into the interactive effects of OA and HM on marine organisms, and highlights the importance of further investigating the responses of different marine taxonomic groups from various geographic locations to the combined stress of OA and HM.

Jorge A. Moura de Sousa ◽  
Eduardo P. C. Rocha

Bacteriophages (phages) are bacterial parasites that can themselves be parasitized by phage satellites. The molecular mechanisms used by satellites to hijack phages are sometimes understood in great detail, but the origins, abundance, distribution and composition of these elements are poorly known. Here, we show that P4-like elements are present in more than 30% of the genomes of Enterobacterales, and in almost half of those of Escherichia coli , sometimes in multiple distinct copies. We identified over 1000 P4-like elements with very conserved genetic organization of the core genome and a few hotspots with highly variable genes. These elements are never found in plasmids and have very little homology to known phages, suggesting an independent evolutionary origin. Instead, they are scattered across chromosomes, possibly because their integrases are often exchanged with other elements. The rooted phylogenies of hijacking functions are correlated and suggest longstanding coevolution. They also reveal broad host ranges in P4-like elements, as almost identical elements can be found in distinct bacterial genera. Our results show that P4-like phage satellites constitute a very distinct, widespread and ancient family of mobile genetic elements. They pave the way for studying the molecular evolution of antagonistic interactions between phages and their satellites. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The secret lives of microbial mobile genetic elements’.

2021 ◽  
Saumik Basu ◽  
Benjamin W Lee ◽  
Robert E Clark ◽  
Sayanta Bera ◽  
Clare L Casteel ◽  

Soil bacteria that form mutualisms with plants, such as rhizobia, affects susceptibility of plants to herbivores and pathogens. Soil rhizobia also promote nitrogen fixation, which mediates host nutrient levels and defenses. However, whether aboveground herbivores affect the function of soil rhizobia remains poorly understood. We assessed reciprocal interactions between Sitona lineatus, a chewing herbivore, and pea (Pisum sativum) plants grown with or without rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae). We also examined the underlying plant-defense and nutritional mechanisms of these interactions. In our experiments, soil rhizobia influenced feeding and herbivory by chewing herbivores. Leaf defoliation by S. lineatus was lower on plants treated with rhizobia, but these insects had similar amino acid levels compared to those on un-inoculated plants. Plants grown with soil rhizobia had increased expression of gene transcripts associated with phytohormone-mediated defense, which may explain decreased susceptibility to S. lineatus. Rhizobia also induced expression of gene transcripts associated with physical and antioxidant-related defense pathways in P. sativum. Conversely, S. lineatus feeding reduced the number of root nodules and nodule biomass, suggesting a disruption of the symbiosis between plants and rhizobia. Our study shows that aboveground herbivores can engage in mutually antagonistic interactions with soil microbes mediated through a multitude of plant-mediated pathways.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yun Wu ◽  
Spencer C. H. Barrett ◽  
Xuyu Duan ◽  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Yongpeng Cha ◽  

Quantifying the relations between plant-antagonistic interactions and natural selection among populations is important for predicting how spatial variation in ecological interactions drive adaptive differentiation. Here, we investigate the relations between the opportunity for selection, herbivore-mediated selection, and the intensity of plant-herbivore interaction among 11 populations of the insect-pollinated plant Primula florindae over 2 years. We experimentally quantified herbivore-mediated directional selection on three floral traits (two display and one phenological) within populations and found evidence for herbivore-mediated selection for a later flowering start date and a greater number of flowers per plant. The opportunity for selection and strength of herbivore-mediated selection on number of flowers varied nonlinearly with the intensity of herbivory among populations. These parameters increased and then decreased with increasing intensity of plant-herbivore interactions, defined as an increase in the ratio of herbivore-damaged flowers per individual. Our results provide novel insights into how plant-antagonistic interactions can shape spatial variation in selection on floral traits and contribute toward understanding the mechanistic basis of geographic variation in angiosperm flowers.

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