Resistance Patterns
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Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Omaima A Shaaban ◽  
Nermin A Mahmoud ◽  
Anas A Zeidan ◽  
Nitya Kumar ◽  
Alan C Finan

2021 ◽  
pp. 3216-3223
Thuan K. Nguyen ◽  
Lam T. Nguyen ◽  
Trang T. H. Chau ◽  
Tam T. Nguyen ◽  
Bich N. Tran ◽  

Background and Aim: Salmonella is one of the leading causes of zoonotic and foodborne infectious outbreaks in humans and poultry and its associated environment is a potential reservoir of Salmonella. In recent years, the antibiotic resistance of bacteria, including Salmonella, has been increasing. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from poultry, its environment, and the pest animals found at poultry farms and households of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Materials and Methods: A total of 3,055 samples were collected from the broiler farms and households of the Mekong Delta from 2017 to 2020. Salmonella was isolated using conventional methods (culturing on selective agar – BPLS and biochemical test) and the isolates were examined for antibiotic resistance against 14 antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. Results: Salmonella was isolated from 181 samples (5.92%), which included chicken feces (7.67%), pest animals (5.98%), and environmental samples (4.33%). The environmental samples comprised bedding (5.88%), feed (5.48%), and drinking water (0.70%). The prevalence of Salmonella was the highest in rats (15.63%) and geckos (12.25%) followed by ants (2.83%) and cockroaches (2.44%); however, Salmonella was not isolated from any fly species. Most of the isolates exhibited resistance to 1-9 antibiotics. The isolates were relatively resistant to chloramphenicol (62.98%), tetracycline (55.80%), ampicillin (54.14%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (53.04%). Sixty-two multiple resistance patterns were found in the isolates, with ampicillin-cefuroxime-chloramphenicol-tetracycline- sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim being the most frequent (7.18%). Conclusion: The chickens, husbandry environment, and pest animals at poultry farms and households were found to be important Salmonella sources in the Mekong Delta. Salmonella isolates from these sources also exhibited a wide-ranging resistance to antibiotics as well as several resistance patterns. Hence, biosecurity should be addressed in poultry farms and households to prevent cross-contamination and reduce the spread of Salmonella infections.

2021 ◽  
Chikondi Isabel Joana Chapuma ◽  
Charlotte Van der veer ◽  
Edward J M Monk ◽  
Apatsa Selemani ◽  
David Kulapani ◽  

Abstract Background: Over two-thirds of global maternal deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with more than 200,000 deaths per year. Maternal sepsis causes 10% of these deaths, twice the proportion observed in high-income countries. In SSA, limited access to diagnostic microbiology facilities poses difficulties in promptly identifying and managing maternal infection and sepsis. This protocol describes a systematic review and meta-analysis that aims to summarize available data on the main bacterial agents causing maternal infections and their antibiotic susceptibility in SSA. Methods: Three electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Embase and African Journals Online. Our search strategy will combine terms relating to laboratory-confirmed bacterial infection, pregnancy, postnatal period and SSA. We will include observational studies describing maternal bacterial infection's aetiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns in SSA. Two authors will perform study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. A third author will be consulted to resolve disagreements if they arise.We will summarize the proportion (and 95% confidence intervals) of samples testing positive for the most common bacteria and, depending on the data's availability and heterogeneity, examine results by country and/or region. If possible, we will describe trends over time and differentiate aetiological organisms and resistance/sensitivities by maternal infection sources. We will also undertake subgroup analyses based on HIV status, the invasive and non-invasive status of the infection, SSA sub-regions and mortality if there is adequate information to make such subgroup analysis feasible. Discussion: Data on the microbiologic outcomes for maternal infections in SSA are likely fragmented and not fully representative due to the limited availability of microbiology diagnostics and geographical differences in clinical and laboratory practices. If this is the case, policies and programme strategies to guide treatment and identify antimicrobial resistance threats in SSA settings will be challenging to target. Our systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the available data, describe the main organisms causing maternal infection and their sensitivities, and identify areas that require further research. Prospero ID: CRD42021238515

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 642-657
Shimaa Tawfeeq Omara ◽  
Ashraf Samir Hakim ◽  
Magdy Ali Bakry

Detailed information on the resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in milk and cheese is strongly required to facilitate risk assessment analysis in case of food poisoning context and to improve therapeutic approaches used in dairy farms. The present study aimed to perform phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial characterizations of methicillin, vancomycin, and erythromycin-resistant S. aureus isolated from milk and dairy products through screening mecA, vanA, and ermC using molecular PCR amplification technology. Moreover, the association between each genotypic and its related antibiotic resistance phenotypic features within the isolated S. aureus strains were analyzed. Moreover, the current study aimed to study MRSA's ability to form biofilms. Out of 226 milk and dairy product samples collected from different retailers in Giza Governorate, 69.5% of the samples were positive for the presence of S. aureus. The isolation rate of S. aureus strains from cattle milk, sheep milk, white cheese, flamenco, and mesh samples were 79.7%, 76.5%, 56.0%, 40.0%, and 94.7%, respectively. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDR) was detected in 51% of all isolated S. aureus strains. All tested S. aureus strains were sensitive to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, and gentamycin. However, their resistance rates against penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin and chloramphenicol were 62.4%, 65.0%, 44.6%, 45.9%, 21.0%, 14.0%, and 2.5%, respectively. Of the isolated S. aureus strains, 72.6%, 40.1%, and 48.4% were carriers for mecA, vanA, and ermC genes and the amplified products were at 310, 1030, and 295 bp, respectively. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were detected in 47.1% of all isolated S. aureus strains. The results indicated that 35.0% of the tested S. aureus strains were genotypic vanA gene carriers and phenotypic resistant to vancomycin representing vancomycin-resistant S. aureus strains. Moreover, 42.7% of all isolated S. aureus strains were carriers for ermC gene and were phenotypic resistant to erythromycin representing erythromycin-resistant S. aureus. The presence of mecA, vanA, and ermC genes in S. aureus was statistically associated with their related phenotypic resistance patterns against both penicillin and oxacillin, vancomycin, and erythromycin, respectively. Moreover, along with an increase in the frequency of mecA, vanA, and ermC genes, their phenotypic antibiotic resistance patterns sharply increased with an odd ratio >1. Of MRSA isolates, 6.8% indicated weak biofilm-formation ability, while 93.2% exhibit no biofilm-forming ability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (ICON-2022) ◽  
Fivzia Herekar ◽  
Samreen Sarfaraz ◽  
Muhammad Imran ◽  
Nida Ghouri ◽  
Saba Shahid ◽  

Background and Objective: Unceasing rise in cases of enteric fever, in particular extensively drug resistant (XDR) strain of Salmonella enterica, has led to a growing threat, leaving only carbapenems and azithromycin as the precious option. In this regard, we determined the burden and clinical course of XDR salmonella in comparison to multidrug-resistant (MDR) and drug sensitive (DS) strains. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 1515 Salmonella Typhi (S.typhi) culture positive patients was conducted at Indus Hospital and Health Network, Karachi from July 2017 to December 2018. Results: During our study, we observed children at the age of 5-6 years and adults at the age of 20-22 years were the chief targets of S.typhi. Further, we witnessed a rapid shift of drug resistance from MDR to XDR over the one year of study. Almost all patients presented with fever. However other signs and symptoms like malaise, body aches, anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain were more common in XDR Typhoid patients. Further, the need of hospitalization, total hospital stay and mortality was also greater for XDR typhoid patients. Conclusion: There is a crucial requirement for consolidated steps to curtail the spread of XDR Salmonella tyhi disease as its management is challenging, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. doi: How to cite this:Herekar F, Sarfaraz S, Imran M, Ghouri N, Shahid S, Mahesar M. Clinical spectrum and outcomes of patients with different resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica . Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(2):356-361. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 337-343
Xossé Carreras ◽  
Andrea S. Salcedo ◽  
Bruno Millones ◽  
Valeria S. Paredes ◽  
Pamela Carpio-Vargas ◽  

Background: Antibiotic resistance is considered to be the next worldwide epidemic. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the second most common cause of infection, which also has the highest resistance frequency. Nevertheless, in high Andean regions, little is known about the antibiotic resistance. Objectives : Determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the enterobacteriaceae family isolated from urinary tract infections of a Peruvian Andean region. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional review of 1717 records from the microbiology service of a private health institution from Puno - Peru, was done between the years 2014 and 2017. Antibiotic resistance by uropathogens was studied among different age groups. Statistical analysis included Chi2 test with a p<0.05. Poisson regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratio (PR) with a 95% confidence interval. Findings: There was a wide distribution of antibiotic resistance among all the antibiotics, mainly in Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. The elderly had the highest prevalence of antibiotic resistance. As age increased, resistance to all drugs also increased (p<0.01). Furthermore, the elderly had a risk probability of resistance of 1.22, 1.42, 1.20 and 1.32 to penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones and other antibiotics respectively. Conclusion: The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Peruvian Andean region were lower than national and international patterns.

Meesha Singh ◽  
Rupsha Karmakar ◽  
Sayak Ganguli ◽  
Mahashweta Mitra Ghosh

Aims: This study aims at comparative identification of antibiotic resistance patterns in bacteria isolated from samples collected from rural environment (LS) and urban environments (SS). Metagenomic profiling gave us insights into the microbial abundance of the two samples. This study focused on culture-based methods for complete identification of antibiotic resistant isolates and estimation of comparative antibiotic resistance among the two samples. Study Design: Untreated medical waste and anthropogenic waste disposal can lead to the propagation of different antibiotic resistant strains in wastewater environments both in urban and rural set ups which provide an insight towards this study approach mentioned in the methodology segment. Place and Duration of Study: Sewer system of a medical facility located in Purulia, India was the collection site for liquid sludge. Solid sludge and associated wastewater were collected in vicinity of a large urban medical facility from central Kolkata, India. Methodology: Physico-chemical properties were analyzed followed by microbiological and biochemical characterization. The antibiotic resistance patterns were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Potent multidrug resistant isolates were identified using 16srRNA gene amplification followed by Phylogenetic profiling, using CLC Genomics workbench. Results: We observed maximum resistance in an E. coli isolate which was resistant up to 22 antibiotics. Combined data for resistance from urban and rural samples were found to exhibit 83.9% resistance to beta lactams, 85.7% to macrolides, 44.2% to fluoroquinolones, 50% to glycopeptides and cephalosporins, 35.7 % to carbapenems and sulfonamides, 28.5 % to tetracycline, and 23.8 % to aminoglycosides. Conclusion: The high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbouring diverse resistance traits across samples indicated towards probable horizontal gene transfer across environmental niches. This study can prove to be useful to understand and map the patterns of resistance and stringently apply the counter measures related to public health practices.

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