Abstract The telencephalon refers to the most highly developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres. The study determined Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle, and compare the expression and distribution pattern of Ngb and HIF-1α in the two animals. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) were employed to investigate Ngb and Hif-1α expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle. mRNA and protein expressions of Ngb and HIF-1α showed positive in different tissues of the yak and cattle telencephalon. Ngb expression in tissues of the yak recorded higher as compare to cattle while HIF-1α expression was found higher in cattle than yak. The HIF-1α expression in some tissues of yak telencephalon was consistent with the cattle. The results documented that HIF-1α may have a direct or indirect synergistic effect on Ngb expression in the yak telencephalon to improve hypoxia adaptation. It is suggested that yak may need more Ngb expression for adaptation, but the expression of HIF-1α seems to be down-regulated during long-term adaptation, and the specific causes of this phenomenon needs to be further verified.
In southern Italy, some artisanal farms produce mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses by using natural whey starter (NWS), whose microbial diversity is responsible for the characteristic flavor and texture of the final product. We studied the microbial community of NWS cultures of cow’s milk (NWSc) for the production of caciocavallo and buffalo’s milk (NWSb) for the production of mozzarella, both from artisanal farms. Bacterial identification at species and strain level was based on an integrative strategy, combining culture-dependent (sequencing of the 16S rDNA, species/subspecies-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and clustering by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) and culture-independent (next-generation sequencing analysis, NGS) approaches. Results obtained with both approaches showed the occurrence of five species of lactic acid bacteria in NWSb (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactobacillus helveticus) and five species in NWSc (Lc. lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium, and S. thermophilus, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. delbrueckii), with the last two found only by the NGS analysis. Moreover, RAPD profiles, performed on Lc. lactis subsp. lactis different isolates from both NWSs, showed nine strains in NWSb and seven strains in NWSc, showing a microbial diversity also at strain level. Characterization of the microbiota of natural whey starters aims to collect new starter bacteria to use for tracing microbial community during the production of artisanal cheeses, in order to preserve their quality and authenticity, and to select new Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains for the production of functional foods.
Background: Osteomyelitis caused by Aspergillus spp. is a severe, but rare, clinical entity. However, clear guidelines regarding the most effective medical management have not yet been established. The present study is a literature review of all such cases, in an effort to elucidate epidemiology, as well as the therapeutic management and the infection’s outcome. Methods: A thorough review of all reports of osteomyelitis of the appendicular and the axial skeleton, without the skull and the spine, caused by Aspergillus spp. was undertaken. Data about demographics, imaging techniques facilitating diagnosis, causative Aspergillus, method of mold isolation, antifungal treatment (AFT), surgical treatment, as well as the infection’s outcome were recorded and evaluated. Results: A total of 63 cases of osseous infection due to Aspergillus spp. were identified. The studied population’s mean age was 37.9 years. The most commonly affected site was the rib cage (36.8%). Most hosts suffered immunosuppressive conditions (76.2%). Regarding imaging methods indicating diagnosis, computer tomography (CT) was performed in most cases (42.9%), followed by plain X-ray (41.3%) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (34.9%). The most frequent isolated mold was Aspergillus fumigatus (49.2%). Cultures and/or histopathology were used for definite diagnosis in all cases, while galactomannan antigen test was additionally used in seven cases (11.1%), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in four cases (6.3%), and beta-d-glucan testing in three cases (4.8%). Regarding AFT, the preferred antifungal was voriconazole (61.9%). Most patients underwent surgical debridement (63.5%). The outcome was successful in 77.5%. Discussion: Osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus spp. represents a severe infection. The available data suggest that prolonged AFT in combination with surgical debridement is the preferred management of this infection, while identification of the responsible mold is of paramount importance.
<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Lyme borreliosis can cause many diverse manifestations, also ocular disease where the diagnosis of ocular borreliosis is challenging. The primary aim was to report on the evidence of <i>Borrelia spirochetes</i> in the ocular tissue in presumed ocular borreliosis. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> A systematic review of pathological eye conditions was performed where <i>Borrelia</i> has been suspected in relevant ocular tissue, together with a case report of diagnosed uveitis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed <i>Borrelia afzelii</i> in the vitreous. The evidence for clinical and laboratory diagnosis was evaluated systematically. As a secondary aim, the treatment of ocular <i>Borrelia</i> infection was also evaluated for confirmed cases. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Thirteen includable studies were found, and after the removal of case duplicates, eleven unique cases were extracted. Apart from the present case report, 4 other cases reported strong evidence for the detection of <i>B. spirochetes</i> in ocular tissue. Four cases presented reasonable evidence for assumed detected <i>Borrelia</i>, while three additional cases showed only weak diagnostic credibility that <i>Borrelia</i> was detected. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> This systematic review, including all reported cases and our case report, supports evidence of ocular infection of <i>Borrelia</i> species. Furthermore, in case of suspicion of infection and seronegativity, it is justified to look for <i>Borrelia</i> in eye tissue samples. In addition, microscopy without using PCR is not sufficient to confirm the diagnosis of borreliosis on ocular tissue. In the articles studied, there was no unambiguous recommendation of treatment.