Chain Reaction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 196 ◽  
pp. 113689
Yong Ju ◽  
Jaemin Kim ◽  
Yeonkyung Park ◽  
Chang Yeol Lee ◽  
Kyungnam Kim ◽  

Talanta ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 237 ◽  
pp. 122977
Liping Xia ◽  
Jianjian Zhuang ◽  
Zheyu Zou ◽  
Juxin Yin ◽  
Ying Mu

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Zhihui Wu ◽  
Jianlin Guo ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Jianhua Liu ◽  
Hongping Ma ◽  

Abstract Background Accumulating data have established that microRNAs (miRNAs) play significant regulatory roles in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancer (OC). MiR-425-5p was reported to function in various tumors. However, the roles and underlying mechanism of miR-425-5p involvement in OC development and progression are unclear. Methods A comprehensive strategy of data mining, computational biology, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to identify the involvement of miR-425-5p in OC progression. The effect of miR-425-5p on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells was determined using Cell Counting Kit-8, wound-healing, and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. Luciferase assay was performed to evaluate the interactions between miR-425-5p and MAGI2-AS3 or AFF4. Results miR-425-5p was significantly up-regulated in OC tissues and cells. The luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-425-5p was negatively regulated by MAGI2-AS3. Silencing miR-425-5p inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells in vitro. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that AFF4 was the target gene of miR-425-5p. Moreover, AFF4 expression was significantly decreased in OC and was closely related to the good prognosis of patients with OC. AFF4 overexpression inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells in vitro. By contrast, silencing AFF4 promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells in vitro. Finally, AFF4 suppression rescued the inhibitory effect of silencing miR-425-5p on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells. Conclusion To the best our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that miR-425-5p overexpression in OC is negatively regulated by MAGI2-AS3. Moreover, miR-425-5p promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OC cells by targeting AFF4, suggesting that miR-425-5p/AFF4 signaling pathway represented a novel therapeutic target for patients with OC.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258970
Amanda Caplan ◽  
Kelly W. Bates ◽  
Carla Brioni ◽  
Aileen Santos ◽  
Linda M. Sabatini ◽  

Background Studies of outpatients with mild or moderate COVID-19 are uncommon. We studied: 1) association of symptoms with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results; and 2) association of initial RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) in relation to duration of RT-PCR positivity in outpatients with mild or moderate COVID-19. Methods This was a cohort study of outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 and at least one symptom. Participants had repeat nasopharyngeal swabs and symptom checklists every 3–5 days until two consecutive RT-PCR tests were negative. RT-PCR tests were used to assess viral load. Antibody tests for COVID-19 were performed at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after symptom onset. Results Twenty-five patients (nine females) were enrolled, ranging in age from 19–58 (median age 28 years). All patients reported at least one symptom, with a median of six symptoms per patient. Symptoms persisted for 6–67 days (median duration 18 days). In all 25 patients, blood samples collected a median of 13 days after symptom onset were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 15 (60%). After a median of 28 days following symptom onset, 23/23 patients with available samples tested positive for antibodies. The longest duration of positive RT-PCR test was 49 days from first positive PCR test (Mean = 27.4, SD = 12.5, Median = 24). Initial Ct was significantly associated with longer duration (β = -1.3, SE = 0.3, p<0.01 per 1 cycle higher) of RT-PCR positivity. Conclusions In mildly or moderately ill COVID-19 outpatients, RT-PCT tests remained positive for as long as 49 days and test positivity and symptom duration correlated with initial viral load.

2021 ◽  
pp. 402-404
Gunjar Jain ◽  
Asjad Mahmood ◽  
Hira Lal Nag ◽  
Pranav Gupta ◽  
Vikram Raj Gopinathan ◽  

Tubercular involvement of the proximal fibula is rare. We present a case of tuberculosis of proximal fibula in an immunocompetent 22-year-old female. She was diagnosed clinically as a case of cellulitis. Radiological investigations, including magnetic resonance imaging revealed a destructive lesion in her right proximal fibula. Finally, by fine-needle aspiration cytology and GeneXpert polymerase chain reaction, a diagnosis of tuberculous osteomyelitis of proximal fibula was established. She was managed non-operatively with multidrug antitubercular chemotherapy. A high index of suspicion is required to make a diagnosis of musculoskeletal tuberculosis of such a rare site in the early stages.

2021 ◽  
Judy W. Gichoya ◽  
Priyanshu Sinha ◽  
Melissa Davis ◽  
Jeffrey W. Dunkle ◽  
Scott A. Hamlin ◽  

Background Chest radiographs (CXR) are frequently used as a screening tool for patients with suspected COVID-19 infection pending reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results, despite recommendations against this. We evaluated radiologist performance for COVID 19 diagnosis on CXR at the time of patient presentation in the Emergency Department (ED). Materials and Methods We extracted RT PCR results, clinical history, and CXRs of all patients from a single institution between March and June 2020. 984 RT PCR positive and 1043 RT-PCR negative radiographs were reviewed by 10 emergency radiologists from 4 academic centers. 100 cases were read by all radiologists and 1927 cases by 2 radiologists. Each radiologist chose the single best label per case: Normal, COVID 19, Other Infectious, Other Noninfectious, Non diagnostic, and Endotracheal Tube. Cases labeled with endotracheal tube or non-diagnostic were excluded. Remaining cases were analyzed for label distribution, clinical history, and inter-reader agreement. Results 1727 radiographs (732 RT PCR positive, 995 RT PCR negative) were included from 1,594 patients (51.2% male, 48.8% female, age 59 +/- 19 years). For 89 cases read by all readers, there was poor agreement for RT PCR positive (Fleiss Score 0.36) and negative (Fleiss Score 0.46) exams. Agreement between two readers on 1,638 cases was 54.2% (373/688) for RT-PCR positive cases and 71.4% (679/950) for negative cases. Agreement was highest for RT PCR negative cases labeled as Normal (50.4%, n= 479). Reader performance did not improve with clinical history or time between CXR and RT-PCR result. Conclusion At the time of presentation to the emergency department, emergency radiologist performance is non-specific for diagnosing COVID 19.

2021 ◽  
Sam AZIMI ◽  
Elodie PICHON ◽  
Ariane BIZE ◽  

Abstract The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been extensively reported at the influent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) worldwide and its monitoring has been proposed as a potential surveillance tool to early alert of epidemic outbreaks. However, the fate of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the treatment process of WWTP has not been widely studied yet; therefore in this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of treatment processes in reducing SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in wastewater. The treatment process of three WWTPs of the Parisian area in France were monitored on six different weeks over a period of two months (from April 14th to June 9th 2021). SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies were detected using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). Investigation on the presence of variants of concern (Del69-70E484 and L452R) was also performed. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads in the WWTPs influents were expressed as the viral charge per population equivalent and showed a good correlation with French public health indicators (incidence rate). SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads were notably reduced along the water treatment lines of the three WWTPs studied (2.5-3.4 log). Finally, very low SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads were detected in effluents (non-detected in over half of the samples) which indicated that the potential health risk of the release of wastewater effluents to the environment is probably insignificant, in the case of WWTPs enabling an efficient biological removal of nitrogen.

2021 ◽  
Yunming Wu ◽  
Wenjing Xu ◽  
Limei Ma ◽  
Zulin Yu ◽  
Yongfu Wang ◽  

We describe a cost-effective, highly sensitive, and quantitative method for in situ detection of single RNA molecules in tissue sections. This method, dubbed Yn situ, standing for Y-branched probe in situ hybridization, uses a single-strand DNA preamplifier with multiple initiation sites that trigger hybridization chain reaction (HCR) to detect polynucleotide. We characterized the performance of this method and compared it to other approaches in the postnatal mouse olfactory epithelia. We find that the Yn situ method, in conjunction with an improved fixation step, is sensitive enough to allow detection of single molecules using a single pair of probes targeting a short nucleotide sequence. A set of 5-probes can produce quantitative results with smaller puncta and higher signal-to-noise ratio than the 20-probe sets commonly required for HCR and RNA-Scope. We show that the high sensitivity and wide dynamic range allow quantification of genes expressed at different levels in the olfactory sensory neurons. We describe key steps of this method to enable broad utility by individual laboratories.

Kim McFann ◽  
Baxter A. Baxter ◽  
Stephanie M. LaVergne ◽  
Sophia Stromberg ◽  
Kailey Berry ◽  

The longitudinal quality of life (QoL) of COVID-19 survivors, especially those with post-acute sequelae (PASC) is not well described. We evaluated QoL in our COVID-19 survivor cohort over 6 months using the RAND SF-36 survey. From July 2020–March 2021 we enrolled 110 adults from the United States with a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) into the Northern Colorado Coronavirus Biobank (NoCo-COBIO). Demographic data and symptom surveillance were collected from 62 adults. In total, 42% were hospitalized, and 58% were non-hospitalized. The Rand SF-36 consists of 36 questions and 8 scales, and questions are scored 0–100. A lower-scale score indicates a lower QoL. In conclusion, hospitalization, PASC, and disease severity were associated with significantly lower scores on the RAND SF-36 in Physical Functioning, Role Limitation due to Physical Health, Energy/Fatigue, Social Functioning, and General Health. Long-term monitoring of COVID-19 survivors is needed to fully understand the impact of the disease on QoL and could have implications for interventions to alleviate suffering during recovery.

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