polymerase chain reaction
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Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 233
Author(s):  
Rosangela Marasco ◽  
Mariagiovanna Gazzillo ◽  
Nicoletta Campolattano ◽  
Margherita Sacco ◽  
Lidia Muscariello

In southern Italy, some artisanal farms produce mozzarella and caciocavallo cheeses by using natural whey starter (NWS), whose microbial diversity is responsible for the characteristic flavor and texture of the final product. We studied the microbial community of NWS cultures of cow’s milk (NWSc) for the production of caciocavallo and buffalo’s milk (NWSb) for the production of mozzarella, both from artisanal farms. Bacterial identification at species and strain level was based on an integrative strategy, combining culture-dependent (sequencing of the 16S rDNA, species/subspecies-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and clustering by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) and culture-independent (next-generation sequencing analysis, NGS) approaches. Results obtained with both approaches showed the occurrence of five species of lactic acid bacteria in NWSb (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, and Lactobacillus helveticus) and five species in NWSc (Lc. lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium, and S. thermophilus, Lb. helveticus, and Lb. delbrueckii), with the last two found only by the NGS analysis. Moreover, RAPD profiles, performed on Lc. lactis subsp. lactis different isolates from both NWSs, showed nine strains in NWSb and seven strains in NWSc, showing a microbial diversity also at strain level. Characterization of the microbiota of natural whey starters aims to collect new starter bacteria to use for tracing microbial community during the production of artisanal cheeses, in order to preserve their quality and authenticity, and to select new Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains for the production of functional foods.


Author(s):  
María Fernanda Calderón Hernádez ◽  

Background: The main objective of this research is to learn the symptoms that occur in this pathology, since we are currently still fighting COVID-19, because of this, it is important to keep us informed about the different diagnostic methods available, which help us reach an earlier and more effective diagnosis. Various articles have been compiled to identify as soon as possible the active cases and thus reduce the number of infections. Materials and methods: This research was conducted on the basis of scientific articles and books, related to COVID-19. Methods: This research was conducted based on 15 scientific articles and 3 books, related to COVID-19. Results: The most important risk factors are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, age and sex. The most common symptoms in Latin America are dry cough, fatigue, sore throat, and fever. The preferred diagnostic test for COVID-19 is the polymerase chain reaction for its specificity and sensitivity Conclusions: As a conclusion, the main objective of the research was achieved, which is to inform the reader about the most relevant symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 in order to improve the identification of suspected cases. Furthermore, we compare various diagnostic methods that exist to date and determine that PCR is the most specific and sensitive.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261853
Author(s):  
Margaret G. Mills ◽  
Emily Bruce ◽  
Meei-Li Huang ◽  
Jessica W. Crothers ◽  
Ollivier Hyrien ◽  
...  

Reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is used worldwide to test and trace the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). “Extraction-less” or “direct” real time–reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a transparent and accessible qualitative method for SARS-CoV-2 detection from nasopharyngeal or oral pharyngeal samples with the potential to generate actionable data more quickly, at a lower cost, and with fewer experimental resources than full RT-qPCR. This study engaged 10 global testing sites, including laboratories currently experiencing testing limitations due to reagent or equipment shortages, in an international interlaboratory ring trial. Participating laboratories were provided a common protocol, common reagents, aliquots of identical pooled clinical samples, and purified nucleic acids and used their existing in-house equipment. We observed 100% concordance across laboratories in the correct identification of all positive and negative samples, with highly similar cycle threshold values. The test also performed well when applied to locally collected patient nasopharyngeal samples, provided the viral transport media did not contain charcoal or guanidine, both of which appeared to potently inhibit the RT-PCR reaction. Our results suggest that direct RT-PCR assay methods can be clearly translated across sites utilizing readily available equipment and expertise and are thus a feasible option for more efficient COVID-19 coronavirus disease testing as demanded by the continuing pandemic.


Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
Author(s):  
Filomena Manjate ◽  
Eva D. João ◽  
Percina Chirinda ◽  
Marcelino Garrine ◽  
Delfino Vubil ◽  
...  

Group A rotaviruses remain the leading cause of diarrhoea in children aged <5 years. Mozambique introduced rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in September 2015. We report rotavirus genotypes circulating among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Manhiça District, Mozambique, pre- and post-vaccine introduction. Stool was collected from enrolled children and screened for rotavirus by enzyme-immuno-sorbent assay. Positive specimens were genotyped for VP7 (G genotypes) and VP4 (P genotypes) by the conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The combination G12P[8] was more frequently observed in pre-vaccine than in post-vaccine introduction, in moderate to severe diarrhoea (34%, 61/177 vs. 0, p < 0.0001) and controls (23%, 26/113 vs. 0, p = 0.0013) and mixed genotypes (36%, 24/67 vs. 7% 4/58, p = 0.0003) in less severe diarrhoea. We observed changes in post-vaccine compared to pre-vaccine introduction, where G3P[4] and G3P[8] were prevalent in moderate to severe diarrhoea (10%, 5/49 vs. 0, p = 0.0002; and 14%, 7/49 vs. 1%, 1/177, p < 0.0001; respectively), and in less severe diarrhoea (21%, 12/58 vs. 0, p = 0.003; and 24%, 14/58 vs. 0, p < 0.0001; respectively). Our surveillance demonstrated the circulation of similar genotypes contemporaneously among cases and controls, as well as switching from pre- to post-vaccine introduction. Continuous surveillance is needed to evaluate the dynamics of the changes in genotypes following vaccine introduction.


Author(s):  
Jun-Hyung Lim ◽  
Sang Hwan Nam ◽  
Jongwoo Kim ◽  
Nam Hoon Kim ◽  
Gun-Soo Park ◽  
...  

Abstract In this study, a three-stage bioaerosol sampler with a sampling flow rate of 170 L/min was designed and fabricated for sampling the bioaerosols released during human breathing and coughing, and its performance was evaluated. The sampler was constructed using a cyclone separator with a cutoff size of 2.5 µm as a preseparator, a multi-nozzle virtual impactor with a cutoff size of 0.34 µm as an aerosol concentrator, and a BioSampler, which is a commercial product, for collecting bioaerosols in a collection fluid. The collection efficiency of the sampler was evaluated through simulations and experiments. Only particles with sizes of 0.1-4 µm were selectively collected in the collection fluid. Bacteriophage bioaerosols were sampled using the developed sampler and ACD-200 Bobcat sampler, which is a commercial product. The amounts of collected bacteriophages were compared using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The sampling performance of the developed sampler was similar to that of the ACD-200 Bobcat sampler. Moreover, the developed sampler showed its ability to sample bioaerosols of a specific size-range and collect them directly in a collection fluid for the PCR analysis. Therefore, the developed sampler is expected to be useful for indoor environmental monitoring by effectively sampling the bioaerosols released indoors during human breathing and coughing.


2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 32-35
Author(s):  
Yu. R. Kamalieva ◽  
D. N. Mingaleev ◽  
R. Kh. Ravilov

The purpose of this work was to identify non-tuberculosism ycobacteria isolated from cattle in the Republic of Tatarstan. The article presents the results of identification of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria in samples of pathological material received from cattle reacting to tuberculin by polymerase chain reaction in real time and with electrophoretic detection. In the result of our research it is determined that in 43% of the explored samples of pathological material received from reacting to tuberculin cattle nontuberculous mycobacteria were identified.


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