Methicillin Resistant
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Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Minhian Chai ◽  
Muhammad Zikree Sukiman ◽  
Amirah Huda Kamarun Baharin ◽  
Insyirah Ramlan ◽  
Lennard Zhunhoong Lai ◽  

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in humans and animals, have become a significant concern globally. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiogram of S. aureus isolated from animal handlers in Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, the genotypic characteristics of S. aureus isolates were also investigated. Nasal and oral swab samples were collected from 423 animal handlers in Peninsular Malaysia. The antibiogram profiles of S. aureus against 18 antibiotics were established using a Kirby–Bauer test. The genotypic profile of S. aureus, including the presence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), virulence genes and spa genotypes, was investigated using molecular techniques. The overall carriage rate of S. aureus, MRSA and MDRSA was 30.5%, 1.2% and 19.4%, respectively. S. aureus was highly resistant against penicillin (72.3%) and amoxicillin (52.3%). Meanwhile, gentamicin and linezolid were fully effective against all the isolated S. aureus from animal handlers. It was observed that animal handlers with close exposure to poultry were more likely to carry S. aureus that is resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin. S. aureus isolates harboured tetracycline resistance (tetK, tetL and tetM), erythromycin resistance (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA) and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes (scn, chp, sak, sea and sep). Seventeen different spa types were detected among the 30 isolates of MDRSA, with t189 (16.7%) and t4171 (16.7%) being the predominant spa type, suggesting wide genetic diversity of the MDRSA isolates. The present study demonstrated the prevalence of S. aureus strains, including MRSA and MDRSA with various antimicrobial resistance and genetic profiles from animal handlers in Peninsular Malaysia.

2022 ◽  
Andrei Bogdanov ◽  
Olga Tsivileva ◽  
Alexandra Voloshina ◽  
Anna Lyubina ◽  
Syumbelya Amerhanova ◽  

A series of biorelevant triethylammonium isatin hydrazones containing various substituents in the aromatic fragment have been synthesized. Their structure and composition were confirmed by NMR- and IR-spectroscopies, mass-spectrometry and elemental analysis. It was found that some representatives show activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus higher or at the level of norfloxacin, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The study also showed low hemo- and cytotoxicity (Chang Liver) and high antiaggregatory and anticoagulant activity of these compounds. The high potential of new ammonium isatin-3-acylhydrazones in the search for antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens of bacterial and fungal nature has been shown for the first time.  

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Takashi Ueda ◽  
Yoshio Takesue ◽  
Kazuhiko Nakajima ◽  
Kaoru Ichiki ◽  
Kaori Ishikawa ◽  

Area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)-guided vancomycin treatment is associated with decreased nephrotoxicity. It is preferable to obtain two samples to estimate the AUC. This study examined the usefulness of AUC estimation via trough concentration (Cmin)-only sampling of 260 adults infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) who received vancomycin. The exact Cmin sampling time was used for Bayesian estimation. A significantly higher early treatment response was observed in patients with a day 2 AUC ≥ 400 µg·h/mL than those with <400 µg·h/mL, and a significantly higher early nephrotoxicity rate was observed in patients with a day 2 AUC ≥ 600 µg·h/mL than those with <600 µg·h/mL. These AUC cutoff values constituted independent factors for each outcome. In sub-analysis, the discrimination ability for early clinical outcomes using these AUC cutoffs was confirmed only in patients with q12 vancomycin administration. A significant difference in early treatment response using the 400 µg·h/mL cutoff was obtained only in patients with low-risk infections. The usefulness of the vancomycin AUC target to decrease nephrotoxicity while assuring clinical efficacy was even confirmed with a single Cmin measurement. However, assessment with two samples might be required in patients with q24 administration or high/moderate-risk MRSA infections.

Morenike O. Adeoye-Isijola ◽  
Kubendran K. Naidoo ◽  
Roger M. Coopoosamy ◽  
Olufunmiso O. Olajuyigbe

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen causing life-threatening hospital and community-acquired infections with high morbidity and mortality rates requiring constant vigilance.Aim: This study aimed at investigating the antistaphylococcal effects of Tetrapleura tetraptera against different strains of multidrug methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to indicate the need for its use in ethnomedicine in addition to its fruits being used in traditional medicine.Methods: In this study, the susceptibilities of S. aureus were investigated using multi-disc antibiotics and extracts of T. tetraptera by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods.Settings: While attention has been focused on the fruits of this plant, it is necessary to investigate the pharmacological importance of its stem bark.Results: The antibiogram showed that 70% of the isolates were multidrug resistant. Nitrofurantoin and gentamicin antibiotics were the most effective whilst amoxicillin and augumentin were the least effective. The susceptibility of the isolates was concentration dependent as inhibition zones decreased with decrease in the concentrations of each of the extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of acetone extract ranged between 0.019 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL whilst the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranged between 0.3125 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL. The MICs of the methanol extract ranged between 0.039 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL whilst the MBCs ranged between 0.3125 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL. Both extracts were more bactericidal than being bacteriostatic against all the isolates. The methanol extract was more active than the acetone extract as indicated by the varied inhibition zones and MICs obtained from the different extracts.Conclusion: This study revealed the great therapeutic potentials of T. tetraptera and validated its use in ethnomedicine and would be effective in the treatment of multidrug and MRSA infections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Manar Bahaa El Din Mohamed ◽  
Fatma I. Abo El-Ela ◽  
Rehab K. Mahmoud ◽  
Ahmed A. Farghali ◽  
Shymaa Gamil ◽  

AbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic nanocomposite of cefotax against MRSA. A total of 190 samples were collected from milk, farm personnel and different environmental components from the dairy farm under the study to isolate S. aureus. Cefotax based magnetic nanoparticles was synthetized by the adsorption method and marked using Fourier-transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), then it was characterized using Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope (SEM and TEM). The obtained results revealed that number of positive samples of S. aureus isolation were 63 (33.1%), mainly from feed manger followed by milk machine swabs (60.0 and 53.3%, respectively) at X2 = 48.83 and P < 0.001. Obtained isolates were identified biochemically and by using molecular assays (PCR), also mec A gene responsible for resistance to cefotax was detected. Testing the sensitivity of 63 isolates of S. aureus showed variable degree of resistance to different tested antibiotics and significant sensitivity to cefotax based magnetic nanoparticles at P < 0.05. It was concluded that dairy environment might act a potential source for transmission of MRSA between human and animal populations. In addition, cefotax based magnetic nanoparticles verified an extreme antimicrobial efficacy against MRSA.

2022 ◽  
Mariah Ndilimeke Muhongo ◽  
Mourine Kangogo ◽  
Christine Bii

The complete halt in the synthesis of new effective antimicrobial compounds is a global concern. Pathogenic microorganisms' virulence mechanisms seem to have a significant impact on their pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol and methanol fractions of Pechuel-Loeschea leubnitziae leaf extract, as well as its effect on the expression level of virulence-associated genes.The extract's fractions were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ATCC 90029. The test organism's antibiogram pattern was determined. The extracts' attenuation effect on the target genes of the susceptible organisms was investigated employing relative quantification using RT-qPCR. The test organism's antibiogram pattern revealed that it was drug-resistant, intermediate, and sensitive. The extracts tested positive for antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans ATCC 90029, with zones of inhibition varying from 20.33 to 29 mm. The lowest recorded MIC value was 4.688 mg/ml, while the highest was 37.5 mg/ml. In contrast to the methanol extract, the ethanol extract had a cidal action at a lower dose. The ethanol extract's Sub-MIC (18.25 mg/ml) merely reduced the expression of the hly gene in MRSA. The MRSA virulence genes were not suppressed by the sub-MIC of methanol extract (18.25 mg/ml). Notably, the expression of als1, pbl1, and sap1 in Candida albicans ATCC 90029 was significantly attenuated when exposed to sub-MICs of ethanol extract (2,344 mg/ml) and methanol extract (9.375 mg/ml). Per the findings of this research, the leaves of P. leubnitziae could be a source of an effective antimicrobial agent in the therapy of MRSA/Candida-related disorders.

2022 ◽  
Ermiyas Mekuriya ◽  
Aseer Manilal ◽  
Addis Aklilu ◽  
Melat Woldemariam ◽  
Tadios Hailu ◽  

Abstract Individuals with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonized nasal cavities were at greater risk of developing the infection and can serve as potential reservoirs of transmission. Aim of this study is to determine the extent of nasal carriage and associated factors linked to MRSA in medical and health science students of Arba Minch University (AMU), Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at AMU from 01st August through 30th November, 2020. A systematic sampling technique was used to recruit the participants. Socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Nasal swabs were collected and S. aureus were identified following standard microbiological methods. Methicillin resistance was tested using cefoxitin disk and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. Biofilm forming ability was phenotypically detected by micro-titer plate assay. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were done by Statistical Package for Social Service (SPSS) version 25. Overall prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were 27.1% (70/258) and 7.4% (19/258) respectively. Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus carriage was higher among medical interns, 16.9% (11/65); isolates were co-resistant to antibiotics, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (63.2%) and tetracycline (48.4%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed among 52.6% (10/19) of the isolates. Besides, 31.4% (6/19) of MRSA were biofilm producers and all of them were MDR. Multivariable analysis showed that students having >2 years of mean exposure to hospital [p= 0.048, AOR: 4.99, 95% CI: 1.01-24.66] and those who share clothing and sports equipment [p=0.017, AOR: 5.43, 95% CI: 1.35-21.83] were statistically significant. The overall prevalence of nasal MRSA among students were comparatively lower than that observed in other studies done in Ethiopia itself. An alarming factor is that, 60% of MDR-MRSA were biofilm producers.

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