pediatric patients
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2022 ◽  
Vol 273 ◽  
pp. 57-63
Eva M. Urrechaga ◽  
Alessia C. Cioci ◽  
Megan K. Allen ◽  
Rebecca A. Saberi ◽  
Gareth P. Gilna ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (3) ◽  

BACKGROUND During initial exposure and removal of craniopharyngioma in pediatric patients with severe visual field deficits, the authors have encountered severe deformation of the optic apparatus by taut anterior cerebral arteries as seen during both frontal craniotomy and transsphenoidal exposures. OBSERVATIONS The authors report two pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma whose severe preoperative visual deficits were associated not only with large suprasellar masses but also with severe optic nerve and chiasm compression by taut anterior cerebral arteries. In each patient, the optic nerves were partially cleft by these vessels’ indenting them. LESSONS The role of a taut anterior cerebral artery complex in compression of the optic apparatus in patients with suprasellar tumors has been reported previously, but the intraoperative images in these two cases dramatically reveal this phenomenon.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 365
Amy Issa ◽  
Jensen Edwards ◽  
Meenal Singh ◽  
Craig Friesen ◽  
Sarah Edwards

Background: Reports indicate patients with feeding difficulties demonstrate signs of inflammation on biopsies, notably eosinophilia, but it is unknown whether mast cell density contributes to variety or volume limitation symptoms. The aim of our study was to evaluate eosinophil and mast cell density of EGD biopsies in pediatric patients with symptoms of decreased volume or variety of ingested foods. Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective chart review of EMRs for all new feeding clinic patients between 0 and 17 years of age. Patients were categorized by symptoms at the initial visit as well as eosinophil and mast cell densities in those with EGD biopsies. Ten patients were identified as controls. Results: We identified 30 patients each with volume and variety limitation. Antral mast cell density was increased in 32.1% of variety-limited patients, 37.5% of volume limited patients, and in no controls; Duodenal mast cell density was increased in 32.1% of variety-limited patients, 40.6% of volume-limited patients, and in no controls. Conclusions: In both variety- and volume-limited patients, antral and duodenal mast cell densities were increased. These associations warrant further investigation of the mechanism between mast cells and development of feeding difficulties, allowing more targeted pediatric therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Maria Francilene S. Souza ◽  
Juliano G. Penha ◽  
Nair Y. Maeda ◽  
Filomena R. B. G. Galas ◽  
Kelly C. O. Abud ◽  

There is scarce information about the relationships between postoperative pulmonary hemodynamics, inflammation, and outcomes in pediatric patients with congenital cardiac communications undergoing surgery. We prospectively studied 40 patients aged 11 (8–17) months (median with interquartile range) with a preoperative mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 48 (34–54) mmHg who were considered to be at risk for postoperative pulmonary hypertension. The immediate postoperative pulmonary/systemic mean arterial pressure ratio (PAP/SAPIPO, mean of first 4 values obtained in the intensive care unit, readings at 2-hour intervals) was correlated directly with PAP/SAP registered in the surgical room just after cardiopulmonary bypass ( r = 0.68 , p < 0.001 ). For the entire cohort, circulating levels of 15 inflammatory markers changed after surgery. Compared with patients with PAP / SA P IPO ≤ 0.40 ( n = 22 ), those above this level ( n = 18 ) had increased pre- and postoperative serum levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor ( p = 0.040 ), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist ( p = 0.020 ), interleukin-6 ( p = 0.003 ), and interleukin-21 ( p = 0.047 ) (panel for 36 human cytokines) and increased mean platelet volume ( p = 0.018 ). Using logistic regression analysis, a PAP / SA P IPO > 0.40 and a heightened immediate postoperative serum level of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (quartile analysis) were shown to be predictive of significant postoperative cardiopulmonary events (respective hazard ratios with 95% CIs, 5.07 (1.10–23.45), and 3.29 (1.38–7.88)). Thus, the early postoperative behavior of the pulmonary circulation and systemic inflammatory response are closely related and can be used to predict outcomes in this population.

2022 ◽  
Jimin Ren ◽  
Fang Yu ◽  
Benjamin M. Greenberg

Over the past four decades, ATP, the obligatory energy molecule for keeping all cells alive and functioning, was thought to contribute only one set of 31P MR signals in the human brain. Here we report for the first time the simultaneous detection of two pools of ATP in the human brain by high-resolution 3D 31P MRSI at ultrahigh field 7T. These two ATP pools differ in cytosolic Mg2+ concentration (1:0.5 ratio), with a resonance separation of 0.5 ppm at beta-ATP, a well-established imaging marker of intracellular Mg2+ concentration. Mg2+ is a cofactor of ATPase and its deficiency is associated with immune dysfunction, free radical damage, perturbations in Ca2+ homeostasis, development of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, and a number of neurological disorders, such as cerebral vasospasm, stroke, migraine, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Our study documents reduced Mg levels in the brain of patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disorders (MOGAD), which is an idiopathic, inflammatory, demyelinating condition of the central nervous system (CNS) more common in pediatric patients. Low-Mg2+ ATP signals in MOGAD were detected mostly in the white matter regions, which may suggest Mg2+ deficiency in oligodendrocytes, which are primarily responsible for maintenance and generation of the axonal myelin sheath. This preliminary study demonstrates the utility of the 7T 3D 31P MSRI for revealing altered energy metabolism with reduced Mg availability at a normal ATP level. The potential correlation between [Mg2+] and disease progression over time should be assessed in larger cohorts.

Ingo Mrosewski ◽  
Tobias Dähn ◽  
Jörg Hehde ◽  
Elena Kalinowski ◽  
Ilona Lindner ◽  

Abstract Objectives Establishing direct reference intervals (RIs) for pediatric patients is a very challenging endeavor. Indirectly determined RIs can address this problem by utilization of existing clinical laboratory databases. In order to provide better laboratory services to the local pediatric population, we established population-specific hematology RIs via data mining. Methods Our laboratory information system (LIS) was searched for pediatric blood counts of patients aged from 0 days to 18 years, performed from 1st of January 2018 until 31st of March 2021. In total, 27,554 blood counts on our SYSMEX XN-9000 were initially identified. After application of pre-defined exclusion criteria, 18,531 sample sets remained. Age- and sex-specific RIs were established in accordance with International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) and Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Results When compared to pediatric RIs supplied by other authors, the RIs determined specifically for pediatric patients from Berlin and Brandenburg showed several relevant differences, especially with regard to white blood cell counts (WBCs), red blood cell counts (RBCs), red cell distribution widths (RDW) and platelet counts (PLTs) within the distinct age groups. Additionally, alterations to several published age-specific partitions had to be made, while new sex-specific partitions were introduced for WBCs and PLTs. Conclusions Generic RIs from textbooks, manufacturer information and medical publications – even from nationwide or multicenter studies – commonly used in many laboratories might not reflect the specifics of local patient populations properly. RIs should be tailored to the serviced patient population whenever possible. Careful data mining appears to be suitable for this task.

2022 ◽  
Rivka Friedland ◽  
Fareed Sabbah ◽  
Shiran Reiss‐Huss ◽  
Dan Ben Amitai

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Miro Jukić ◽  
Ivona Biuk ◽  
Zenon Pogorelić

Background: Unplanned return to the operating room (uROR) within the 30-day postoperative period can be used as a quality indicator in pediatric surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate uROR as a quality indicator. Methods: The case records of pediatric patients who underwent reoperation within the 30-day period after primary surgery, from 1 January 2018 to 31 December 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome of the study was the rate of uROR as a quality indicator in pediatric surgery. Secondary outcomes were indications for primary and secondary surgery, types and management of complications, factors that led to uROR, length of hospital stay, duration of surgery and anesthesia, and starting time of surgery. Results: A total of 3982 surgical procedures, under general anesthesia, were performed during the three-year study period (2018, n = 1432; 2019, n = 1435; 2020, n = 1115). Elective and emergency surgeries were performed in 3032 (76.1%) and 950 (23.9%) patients, respectively. During the study period 19 (0.5%) pediatric patients, with the median age of 11 years (IQR 3, 16), underwent uROR within the 30-day postoperative period. The uROR incidence was 6 (0.4%), 6 (0.4%), and 7 (0.6%) for years 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively (p = 0.697). The incidence of uROR was significantly higher in males (n = 14; 73.7%) than in females (n = 5; 26.3%) (p = 0.002). The share of unplanned reoperations in studied period was 4.5 times higher in primarily emergency surgeries compared to primarily elective surgeries (p < 0.001). The difference in incidence was 0.9% (95% CI, 0.4–1.4). Out of children that underwent uROR within the 30-day period after elective procedures, 50% had American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score three or higher (p = 0.016). The most common procedure which led to uROR was appendectomy (n = 5, 26.3%) while the errors in surgical technique were the most common cause for uROR (n = 11, 57.9%). Conclusion: Unplanned reoperations within the 30-day period after the initial surgical procedure can be a good quality indicator in pediatric surgery. Risk factors associated with uROR are emergency surgery, male gender, and ASA score ≥3 in elective pediatric surgery.

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