Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus
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Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Author(s):  
Minhian Chai ◽  
Muhammad Zikree Sukiman ◽  
Amirah Huda Kamarun Baharin ◽  
Insyirah Ramlan ◽  
Lennard Zhunhoong Lai ◽  
...  

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in humans and animals, have become a significant concern globally. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiogram of S. aureus isolated from animal handlers in Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, the genotypic characteristics of S. aureus isolates were also investigated. Nasal and oral swab samples were collected from 423 animal handlers in Peninsular Malaysia. The antibiogram profiles of S. aureus against 18 antibiotics were established using a Kirby–Bauer test. The genotypic profile of S. aureus, including the presence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), virulence genes and spa genotypes, was investigated using molecular techniques. The overall carriage rate of S. aureus, MRSA and MDRSA was 30.5%, 1.2% and 19.4%, respectively. S. aureus was highly resistant against penicillin (72.3%) and amoxicillin (52.3%). Meanwhile, gentamicin and linezolid were fully effective against all the isolated S. aureus from animal handlers. It was observed that animal handlers with close exposure to poultry were more likely to carry S. aureus that is resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin. S. aureus isolates harboured tetracycline resistance (tetK, tetL and tetM), erythromycin resistance (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA) and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes (scn, chp, sak, sea and sep). Seventeen different spa types were detected among the 30 isolates of MDRSA, with t189 (16.7%) and t4171 (16.7%) being the predominant spa type, suggesting wide genetic diversity of the MDRSA isolates. The present study demonstrated the prevalence of S. aureus strains, including MRSA and MDRSA with various antimicrobial resistance and genetic profiles from animal handlers in Peninsular Malaysia.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Author(s):  
Takashi Ueda ◽  
Yoshio Takesue ◽  
Kazuhiko Nakajima ◽  
Kaoru Ichiki ◽  
Kaori Ishikawa ◽  
...  

Area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)-guided vancomycin treatment is associated with decreased nephrotoxicity. It is preferable to obtain two samples to estimate the AUC. This study examined the usefulness of AUC estimation via trough concentration (Cmin)-only sampling of 260 adults infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) who received vancomycin. The exact Cmin sampling time was used for Bayesian estimation. A significantly higher early treatment response was observed in patients with a day 2 AUC ≥ 400 µg·h/mL than those with <400 µg·h/mL, and a significantly higher early nephrotoxicity rate was observed in patients with a day 2 AUC ≥ 600 µg·h/mL than those with <600 µg·h/mL. These AUC cutoff values constituted independent factors for each outcome. In sub-analysis, the discrimination ability for early clinical outcomes using these AUC cutoffs was confirmed only in patients with q12 vancomycin administration. A significant difference in early treatment response using the 400 µg·h/mL cutoff was obtained only in patients with low-risk infections. The usefulness of the vancomycin AUC target to decrease nephrotoxicity while assuring clinical efficacy was even confirmed with a single Cmin measurement. However, assessment with two samples might be required in patients with q24 administration or high/moderate-risk MRSA infections.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mariah Ndilimeke Muhongo ◽  
Mourine Kangogo ◽  
Christine Bii

The complete halt in the synthesis of new effective antimicrobial compounds is a global concern. Pathogenic microorganisms' virulence mechanisms seem to have a significant impact on their pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol and methanol fractions of Pechuel-Loeschea leubnitziae leaf extract, as well as its effect on the expression level of virulence-associated genes.The extract's fractions were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ATCC 90029. The test organism's antibiogram pattern was determined. The extracts' attenuation effect on the target genes of the susceptible organisms was investigated employing relative quantification using RT-qPCR. The test organism's antibiogram pattern revealed that it was drug-resistant, intermediate, and sensitive. The extracts tested positive for antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans ATCC 90029, with zones of inhibition varying from 20.33 to 29 mm. The lowest recorded MIC value was 4.688 mg/ml, while the highest was 37.5 mg/ml. In contrast to the methanol extract, the ethanol extract had a cidal action at a lower dose. The ethanol extract's Sub-MIC (18.25 mg/ml) merely reduced the expression of the hly gene in MRSA. The MRSA virulence genes were not suppressed by the sub-MIC of methanol extract (18.25 mg/ml). Notably, the expression of als1, pbl1, and sap1 in Candida albicans ATCC 90029 was significantly attenuated when exposed to sub-MICs of ethanol extract (2,344 mg/ml) and methanol extract (9.375 mg/ml). Per the findings of this research, the leaves of P. leubnitziae could be a source of an effective antimicrobial agent in the therapy of MRSA/Candida-related disorders.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Author(s):  
Bing-Mu Hsu ◽  
Jung-Sheng Chen ◽  
Gwo-Jong Hsu ◽  
Suprokash Koner ◽  
Viji Nagarajan ◽  
...  

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a dynamic and tenacious pathogenic bacterium which is prevalent in livestock farming environments. This study investigated the possibility of MRSA spread via bioaerosol transmission from an indoor chicken farm environment to outdoors downwind (up to 50 m). The concentration of total airborne bacteria colony formation units (CFUs) was decreased with increasing sampling distance ranging from 9.18 × 101 to 3.67 × 103 per air volume (m3). Among the 21 MRSA isolates, 15 were isolated from indoor chicken sheds and exposure square areas, whereas 6 were isolated from downwind bioaerosol samples. Molecular characterization revealed that all of them carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) VIII, and they were remarkably linked with the hospital-associated MRSA group. Spa typing analysis determined that all MRSA isolates belonged to spa type t002. Virulence analysis showed that 100% of total isolates possessed exfoliative toxin A (eta), whereas 38.09% and 23.80% strains carried exfoliative toxin B (etb) and enterotoxin A (entA). Additionally, all of these MRSA isolates carried multidrug resistance properties and showed their resistance against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. In addition, chi-squared statistical analysis displayed a significant distributional relationship of gene phenotypes between MRSA isolates from chicken farm indoor and downwind bioaerosol samples. The results of this study revealed that chicken farm indoor air might act as a hotspot of MRSA local community-level outbreak, wherein the short-distance dispersal of MRSA could be supported by bioaerosols.


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