methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 164-170
Author(s):  
Yixuan Sun ◽  
Fengjun Sun ◽  
Wei Feng ◽  
Qian Wang ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
...  

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Author(s):  
Minhian Chai ◽  
Muhammad Zikree Sukiman ◽  
Amirah Huda Kamarun Baharin ◽  
Insyirah Ramlan ◽  
Lennard Zhunhoong Lai ◽  
...  

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in humans and animals, have become a significant concern globally. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiogram of S. aureus isolated from animal handlers in Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, the genotypic characteristics of S. aureus isolates were also investigated. Nasal and oral swab samples were collected from 423 animal handlers in Peninsular Malaysia. The antibiogram profiles of S. aureus against 18 antibiotics were established using a Kirby–Bauer test. The genotypic profile of S. aureus, including the presence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), virulence genes and spa genotypes, was investigated using molecular techniques. The overall carriage rate of S. aureus, MRSA and MDRSA was 30.5%, 1.2% and 19.4%, respectively. S. aureus was highly resistant against penicillin (72.3%) and amoxicillin (52.3%). Meanwhile, gentamicin and linezolid were fully effective against all the isolated S. aureus from animal handlers. It was observed that animal handlers with close exposure to poultry were more likely to carry S. aureus that is resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin. S. aureus isolates harboured tetracycline resistance (tetK, tetL and tetM), erythromycin resistance (ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA) and immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes (scn, chp, sak, sea and sep). Seventeen different spa types were detected among the 30 isolates of MDRSA, with t189 (16.7%) and t4171 (16.7%) being the predominant spa type, suggesting wide genetic diversity of the MDRSA isolates. The present study demonstrated the prevalence of S. aureus strains, including MRSA and MDRSA with various antimicrobial resistance and genetic profiles from animal handlers in Peninsular Malaysia.


ADMET & DMPK ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrei Bogdanov ◽  
Olga Tsivileva ◽  
Alexandra Voloshina ◽  
Anna Lyubina ◽  
Syumbelya Amerhanova ◽  
...  

A series of biorelevant triethylammonium isatin hydrazones containing various substituents in the aromatic fragment have been synthesized. Their structure and composition were confirmed by NMR- and IR-spectroscopies, mass-spectrometry and elemental analysis. It was found that some representatives show activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus higher or at the level of norfloxacin, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The study also showed low hemo- and cytotoxicity (Chang Liver) and high antiaggregatory and anticoagulant activity of these compounds. The high potential of new ammonium isatin-3-acylhydrazones in the search for antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens of bacterial and fungal nature has been shown for the first time.  


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Author(s):  
Takashi Ueda ◽  
Yoshio Takesue ◽  
Kazuhiko Nakajima ◽  
Kaoru Ichiki ◽  
Kaori Ishikawa ◽  
...  

Area under the concentration–time curve (AUC)-guided vancomycin treatment is associated with decreased nephrotoxicity. It is preferable to obtain two samples to estimate the AUC. This study examined the usefulness of AUC estimation via trough concentration (Cmin)-only sampling of 260 adults infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) who received vancomycin. The exact Cmin sampling time was used for Bayesian estimation. A significantly higher early treatment response was observed in patients with a day 2 AUC ≥ 400 µg·h/mL than those with <400 µg·h/mL, and a significantly higher early nephrotoxicity rate was observed in patients with a day 2 AUC ≥ 600 µg·h/mL than those with <600 µg·h/mL. These AUC cutoff values constituted independent factors for each outcome. In sub-analysis, the discrimination ability for early clinical outcomes using these AUC cutoffs was confirmed only in patients with q12 vancomycin administration. A significant difference in early treatment response using the 400 µg·h/mL cutoff was obtained only in patients with low-risk infections. The usefulness of the vancomycin AUC target to decrease nephrotoxicity while assuring clinical efficacy was even confirmed with a single Cmin measurement. However, assessment with two samples might be required in patients with q24 administration or high/moderate-risk MRSA infections.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Author(s):  
Yuki Uehara

Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was established in the 2000s and has been employed as a tool for the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the evolution investigation of Staphylococcus species. Molecular cloning and the conventional sequencing of SCCmec have been adopted to verify the presence and structure of a novel SCCmec type, while convenient PCR-based SCCmec identification methods have been used in practical settings for many years. In addition, whole-genome sequencing has been widely used, and various SCCmec and similar structures have been recently identified in various species. The current status of the SCCmec types, SCCmec subtypes, rules for nomenclature, and multiple methods for identifying SCCmec types and subtypes were summarized in this review, according to the perspective of the International Working Group on the Classification of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Elements.


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