Buddhist Devotion to the Russian Tsar : The Bicultural Environment of the Don Kalmyk Sangha and Russian Orthodox Church in the 1830s

Inoue Takehiko

Inoue Takehiko’s paper analyses how the close and long-lasting relationship between Kalmyk Buddhists and Don Cossacks (in the Don Cossack province) developed during the nineteenth century. This relationship was mediated both by Kalmyk Buddhist monks and the requirements of military and religious services to the Tsar, leading to transformations in the identity of this Kalmyk group. He uses the example of the ceremony surrounding the opening of a Kalmyk Parish school in 1839 to demonstrate how both parties sought to combine their socio-religious cultures in furtherance of the alliance of their interests.

1966 ◽  
Vol 35 (4) ◽  
pp. 411-437 ◽  
Judith Cohen Zacek

The historian Presniakov has characterized the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the reign of Alexander I, as “Russia at the crossroads” (Rossiia na rasput'i). No longer content with slavish imitation of Western Europe, Russia now began to develop a culture which would be admired and emulated by the West. Once beyond the fringe of European diplomacy, the Empire now moved to the center of that arena. Shaped by her national traditions, but involved increasingly in continent-wide trends, the Russia of Alexander I was confronted by a varied and complex set of problems, both domestic and foreign, which demanded resolution. The destruction of the Napoleonic threat, the assimilation of subject nationalities, the establishment of efficient techniques and procedures of government, the articulation and implementation of national policies in education and in economic life were among the countless tasks which faced Alexander I and his advisors. Educated Russians of the day heatedly debated the most effective means of solving the myriad dilemmas.

Barbara Skinner

The Russian Orthodox Church never experienced a movement that placed the authority of Scriptures over that of the Church, which was characteristic of the Protestant reformations in Western Europe. Nevertheless, an increased emphasis on the Scriptures and a desire to translate the Bible into the vernacular arose in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Russia. Aside from the work of the Russian Bible Society, scholars have not shed much light on this trend as it occurred within clerical education. This article argues that the episode of the Bible Society was a critical chapter within a larger story of important theological and pedagogical shifts within Russian Orthodox education and values. The roots of the Russian biblical translation effort extend back to the eighteenth century, when ethnic Russian clerical scholars gained the linguistic abilities in Greek and Hebrew to translate based on the ancient texts, and when more attention began to be paid to both vernacular Russian instruction and Scriptural study in the ecclesiastical schools. These trends flourished more deeply in the first half of the nineteenth century. Thus, although Russia did not undergo a reformation in the Western sense of the word, it underwent similar internal reforms that brought the Scriptures into a more central role in the church without undermining Church authority and tradition.

2019 ◽  
pp. 288-295
Варвара Викторовна Каширина

С жизнью и творчеством крупнейшего русского богослова и духовного писателя второй половины XIX в. святителя Феофана Затворника читатель может теперь подробно познакомиться в первых двух томах Летописи его жизни и творчества. Среди отечественных богословов сегодня вряд ли можно назвать какое-нибудь другое имя, кому в последнее время было посвящено столько исследований. Ежегодные Феофановские чтения, конференции и семинары 1 свидетельствуют о всё возрастающем интересе к личности и творениям святителя. Как отметил в Предисловии к первому тому Святейший Патриарх Московский и всея Руси Кирилл, «духовное наследие святителя Феофана представляется и сегодня весьма актуальным для верующего человека. Принципы духовной жизни, сформулированные в трудах святителя “Путь ко спасению”, “Начертание христианского нравоучения”, “Письма о христианской жизни” служат руководством для тысяч и тысяч содевающих свое спасение. The life and work of the greatest Russian theologian and spiritual writer of the second half of the nineteenth century, St Theophan the Recluse, is now available to the reader in the first two volumes of the Annals of his Life and Work. Among Russian theologians today one can hardly name any other name to whom so much research has been devoted lately. Theophanes' annual readings, conferences, and seminars 1 testify to a growing interest in the personality and writings of the saint. As His Holiness Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia noted in the Preface to the first volume, "The spiritual legacy of St Theophanes is still very relevant for the believer. The principles of spiritual life, formulated in his works The Way to Salvation, The Outline of Christian Morals, and Letters on the Christian Life, serve as a guide for thousands and thousands who seek salvation.

1956 ◽  
Vol 49 (4) ◽  
pp. 185-205
Serge Elisséeff

In the Russia of my childhood and youth, at the end of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth, religious attitudes and practices in society as a whole were still those inherited through centuries of tradition in the Russian Orthodox Church. Traditional observances had not yet, as they were soon to be, been widely questioned or neglected. Most orthodox Russians tried to live according to the rules of the Church; but I believe that the merchant class, which included my family, followed established religious practices more strictly than other laymen. Perhaps this was because they were more traditional-minded than the bureaucracy or the aristocracy.

Heather L. Bailey

This chapter deals with Russian responses to the popularization of the simplistic, negative constructions of the Russian Orthodox Church in the mid-nineteenth century. It focuses mainly on the period between the revolutions of 1848 to 1849 and the First Vatican Council from 1869 to 1870. It also compares the Orthodoxy's public image as portrayed by westerners and as imagined by Russian publicists. The chapter explores the circumstances under which westerners, concerned about the fate of the papacy, the Ottoman Empire, Poland, and Russian imperial power, constructed a reductionist view of the Russian Orthodox Church, conflating it with the state. By creating caricatures of Eastern Christianity in general and a bogeyman of the Russian Church, the chapter reviews important cross-sections of educated western European society that ostracized Russia from what they considered to be the Christian and civilized ecumene.

2013 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 111-132 ◽  
Mara Kozelsky

Turning to the Russian Empire’s southern borders, Mara Kozelsky assesses Orthodox missions in the provinces of “New Russia” on the northern coast of the Black Sea with a focus on the work of Archbishop Innokentii (Borisov) in the mid-nineteenth century and his attempts to strengthen Orthodoxy in this ethnically and confessionally diverse region. Kozelsky argues that Orthodox leaders saw the Orthodox faith, rather than language or culture, as the key to assimilation into the empire, but that they respected the juridical stature of Muslims and various Protestant groups and worked around rights given to Catholics after the 1847 concordat with Rome. Some success came of Innokenty’s efforts among the Russian sectarians and Old Believers, but mission work among the Crimean Tatars and Protestant colonists were largely fruitless. In the end, “Christianizing” the region came not so much from individual conversions as from reconstructing the region’s Christian past and promoting large public celebrations that drew upon centuries of Byzantine history and the Christian past of the region to promote a Christian identity for the region.

2001 ◽  
pp. 91-100
Yu. Ye. Reshetnikov

Last year, the anniversary of all Christianity, witnessed a number of significant events caused by a new interest in understanding the problem of the unity of the Christian Church on the turn of the millennium. Due to the confidentiality of Ukraine, some of these events have or will have an immediate impact on Christianity in Ukraine and on the whole Ukrainian society as a whole. Undoubtedly, the main event, or more enlightened in the press, is a new impetus to the unification of the UOC-KP and the UAOC. But we would like to focus on two documents relating to the problem of Christian unity, the emergence of which was almost unnoticed by the wider public. But at the same time, these documents are too important as they outline the future policy of other Christian denominations by two influential Ukrainian christian churches - the Russian Orthodox Church and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. These are the "Basic Principles of the attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church to the" I ", adopted by the Anniversary Bishops' Council of the Russian Orthodox Church, and the Concept of the Ecumenical Position of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, adopted by the Synod of the Bishops of the UGCC. It is clear that the theme of the second document is wider, but at the same time, ecumenism, unification is impossible without solving the problem of relations with others, which makes it possible to compare the approaches laid down in the mentioned documents to the building of relations with other Christian confessions.

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