western europe
Recently Published Documents





The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are universally seen to be global in their nature and reach, but there is a growing acceptance that they have an important local dimension. At the same time, there is an increasing recognition of the need for appropriate Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to support and monitor the SDGs. This article adopts a qualitative inductive research approach in examining a range of public authority and academic source material, and framework analysis is used to record, categorise and critique this material. The findings provide an overview of the role of the SDGs at the local level and an assessment of how the localisation of the SDGs is being addressed in some urban areas within Western Europe. The findings also indicate how ICTs are being deployed to support the localisation process in Western Europe and the wider world. This is followed by a discussion of some emergent issues related to the localisation of the SDGs, including the increasingly important role of ICTs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Jean-David Moreau ◽  
Romain Vullo ◽  
Sylvain Charbonnier ◽  
Romain Jattiot ◽  
Vincent Trincal ◽  

Abstract Since the 1980s, the Upper Jurassic lithographic limestone of the Causse Méjean (southern France) has been known by local naturalists to yield fossils. However, until the beginning of the 21st century, this plattenkalk remained largely undersampled and scientifically underestimated. Here, we present the results of two decades of prospection and sampling in the Drigas and the Nivoliers quarries. We provide the first palaeontological inventory of the fossil flora, the fauna and the ichnofauna for these localities. The fossil assemblages show the co-occurrence of marine and terrestrial organisms. Marine organisms include algae, bivalves, brachiopods, cephalopods (ammonites, belemnites and coleoids such as Trachyteuthis), echinoderms, decapod crustaceans (ghost shrimps, penaeoid shrimps and glypheoid lobsters) and fishes (including several actinopterygians and a coelacanth). Terrestrial organisms consist of plant remains (conifers, bennettitaleans, pteridosperms) and a single rhynchocephalian (Kallimodon cerinensis). Ichnofossils comprise traces of marine invertebrates (e.g. limulid trackways, ammonite touch mark) as well as coprolites and regurgitalites. Given the exquisite preservation of these fossils, the two quarries can be considered as Konservat-Lagerstätten. Both lithological features and fossil content suggest a calm, protected and shallow-marine environment such as a lagoon partially or occasionally open to the sea. Most fossils are allochthonous to parautochthonous and document diverse ecological habitats. Similarly to other famous Upper Jurassic plattenkalks of western Europe such as Solnhofen, Cerin or Canjuers, the Causse Méjean is a key landmark for our understanding of coastal/lagoonal palaeoecosystems during the Kimmeridgian–Tithonian interval.

2022 ◽  
Dimiter Toshkov

Attitudes towards vaccination have proven to be a major factor determining the pace of national COVID-19 vaccination campaigns throughout 2021. In Europe, large differences in levels of vaccine hesitancy and refusal have emerged, which are highly correlated with actual vaccination levels. This article explores attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination in 27 European countries based on data from Eurobarometer (May 2021). The statistical analyses show that demographic variables have complex effects on vaccine hesitancy and refusal. Trust in different sources of health-related information has significant effects as well, with people who trust the Internet, social networks and ‘people around’ in particular being much more likely to express vaccine skepticism. As expected, beliefs in the safety and effectiveness of vaccines have large predictive power, but – more interestingly – net of these two beliefs, the effects of trust in Internet, online social networks and people as sources of health information are significantly reduced. This study shows that the effects of demographic, belief-related and other individual-level factors on vaccine hesitancy and refusal are context-specific. Yet, explanations of the differences in vaccine hesitancy across Europe need to consider primarily different levels of trust and vaccine-relevant beliefs, and to a lesser extent their differential effects.

2022 ◽  
Renat N. Apkin ◽  

According to UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiations), no less than 10% of lung cancer diseases registered annually are caused by radon radiation. Born in the belly of the earth, the same gas, a class I cancirogen, increases the risk of non-cancerous diseases of the upper respiratory tract and cardiovascular diseases. The radon problem occupies an important place in the radioecological programs of the USA, Japan, Western Europe and Russia. However, the natural radiation varies in the background from location to location. In many countries, survey work is being carried out, including an assessment of the intensity of the radon hazards of sites allocated for construction. In Russia, the Radiation Safety Standards are stipulating that the concentration of radon in the air of residential premises should not exceed 200 Bq/m3; in Sweden, the maximum radon concentration is taken as 100 Bq/m3, in Finland and Canada - 400 Bq/m3, and in Germany and Great Britain - 200 Bq/m3. It is necessary to carefully choose the constructive site, with the minimum concentration of radon in the soil. Our purpose is to carry out a cartographic analysis of radon intake from soil in the territory of Kazan. An important component is the creation of unique maps based on the measurement of radon escalation. The practical significance of the work lies in the application of the results for making management decisions, in engineering and environmental surveys, for conducting hygienic assessments, or simply being used by citizens for informational purposes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 124 ◽  
pp. 5-33
Tomasz Sikorski ◽  
Adam Wątor

The article reconstructs Polish information and propaganda campaigns in Western Europe in the run-up to the Great War. Those initiatives allowed the issues related to the Polish question, especially the persecution of Poles under the Prussian and Russian partitions, to be brought to public attention in the West. The authors trace the process of disseminating information to the intellectual communities of Paris, Rome and London based on participant accounts, reports, propaganda pamphlets, the press from the period and secondary literature. They conclude that propaganda campaigns reached a relatively narrow group of intellectuals, writers, members of the artistic community, journalists, and to a lesser extent, parliamentarians. Although the information campaign could not immediately alter the previously established stereotypes, its specific effects could be observed during the Great War and at the Paris Peace Conference.

2022 ◽  

Relational pedagogies place relationships at the heart of good teaching and learning. As shown across multiple fields of educational scholarship, educational interactions and learning exchanges between children and their teachers necessarily exist within the context of an existing relationship. The strength and characteristics of these relationships in turn shape and influence the success of the exchange. Importantly, therefore, relational pedagogy is not simply about making a child or teacher feel happy or content. Rather, it is closely related to the style, quality, and content of education a child receives. Empirical research supports these theoretical claims. Relationship qualities and teacher-child interaction qualities have each long been shown to influence children’s emotional well-being and competence, across early childhood centers and schools, yet there is increasingly strong evidence that they shape cognitive development and learning outcomes too. To ensure equitable educational opportunities for all children, strong and adaptive teacher-child relationships are critical. Given the varied definitions and use of relational pedagogy in the literature, together with a diverse range of relevant research that examines relational concepts, we have attempted to present multiple representative topics and articles across this encyclopedia entry. The topics and articles we feature are not exhaustive, and, indeed, there are likely to be other good ways that one might frame research and theory on relational pedagogies. Where two studies have similar findings, we have intentionally given preference to the more recent study; noting that references from this more recent work are likely to offer the reader the broadest window into the field. We nonetheless also include a number of seminal resources. We also have elected to cite research with robust methodologies where possible, although we note that methodological approaches vary markedly between subfields. Research examining teachers’ perspectives in early childhood centers has often used multiple case studies, for example, while research examining children’s developmental outcomes within particular relationships or following particular interactions is often larger in scale and broader in approach. The majority of research and scholarship on relational pedagogies, student-teacher relationship quality, and interactional processes is conducted with Western societies and cultures: often in the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and western Europe. Less research or scholarship has been conducted in other countries, cultures, and subcultures. This is a problem replicated across developmental and educational research broadly, with study participants much more likely to come from WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) societies than from other non-WEIRD societies. While the majority of works in this bibliography are therefore also conducted with Western children and students, we include a section outlining an important body of emerging research and scholarship focused on relational pedagogies in Indigenous, non-Western, and diverse communities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
pp. 61-75
Reka Deim

This paper explores how art contributes to the articulation of memories that counter the official historical narrative of Hungary’s self-proclaimed political and ideological system, illiberal democracy. Amid deepening polarization between Europe’s post-colonialist and post-socialist countries, the Hungarian government promotes a Christian conservative national identity against the “liberal” values of Western Europe. Systematic appropriation of historical traumas is at the core of such efforts, which largely manifests in removing, erecting and reinstating memorials, as well as in the re-signification of trauma sites. Insufficient civic involvement in rewriting histories generates new ways of resistance, which I demonstrate through the case study of a protest-performance organized by the Living Memorial activist group as a response to the government’s decision to displace the memorial of Imre Nagy in 2018. I seek to understand the dynamics between top-down memory politics, civil resistance and art within the conceptual apparatus of the “memory activism nexus” (Rigney 2018, 2020) and “multidirectional memories” (Rothberg 2009). I argue that artistic memory activism has limited potential to transform the dynamics of memory in a context where a national conservative political force has gradually taken control over historical narratives, triggering inevitably polarizing responses in the society. Although profoundly embedded in local histories, the case-study may offer new ways of negotiating traumatic heritages through the entanglement of art and memory activism.

Nils Reinhardt ◽  
Axel Gerdes ◽  
Aratz Beranoaguirre ◽  
Max Frenzel ◽  
Lawrence D. Meinert ◽  

AbstractHere, we present in situ U–Pb laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) ages of andradite-grossular garnet from four magmatic-hydrothermal polymetallic skarn prospects in the Schwarzenberg District, Erzgebirge (Germany), located in the internal zone of the Variscan Orogenic Belt. Within the geochronological framework of igneous rocks and hydrothermal mineralization in the Erzgebirge, the obtained garnet ages define three distinct episodes of Variscan skarn formation: (I) early late-collisional mineralization (338–331 Ma) recording the onset of magmatic-hydrothermal fluid flow shortly after the peak metamorphic event, (II) late-collisional mineralization (~ 327–310 Ma) related to the emplacement of large peraluminous granites following large-scale extension caused by orogenic collapse and (III) post-collisional mineralization (~ 310–295 Ma) contemporaneous with widespread volcanism associated with Permian crustal reorganization. Our results demonstrate that the formation of skarns in the Schwarzenberg District occurred episodically in all sub-stages of the Variscan orogenic cycle over a time range of at least 40 Ma. This observation is consistent with the age range of available geochronological data related to magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits from other internal zones of the Variscan Orogenic Belt in central and western Europe. In analogy to the time–space relationship of major porphyry-Cu belts in South America, the congruent magmatic-hydrothermal evolution in the internal zones and the distinctly later (by ~ 30 Ma) occurrence of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits in the external zones of the Variscan Orogenic Belt may be interpreted as a function of their tectonic position relative to the Variscan collisional front.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document