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2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Perry Johansson

This article offers a new perspective on the Swedish protests against the Vietnam War by placing it in its broader global Cold War context. As a case study on ‘people's diplomacy’ and ‘united front strategy’, it acknowledges the importance of Chinese and Vietnamese influences on the peace campaigns in Sweden and aims, as far as possible, to reconstruct Hanoi's motives, strategies and actions to create and direct Sweden's policy and opinion on the war. With the extremely generous political freedoms granted it by official Sweden, Hanoi was able to find new international allies as well as organise political propaganda manifestations from their Stockholm base. In the end, North Vietnam's version of the war as being about national liberation fought by a people united in their resistance to a foreign, genocidal, aggressor won a large enough share of the opinion in the West to force the American political leadership to give up the fight. Hanoi's Diplomatic Front in Sweden was one of the important battlefields behind that victory

2021 ◽  
Anju Mary Paul

The growing scientific research output from Asia has been making headlines since the start of the twenty-first century. But behind this science story, there is a migration story. The elite scientists who are pursuing cutting-edge research in Asia are rarely 'homegrown' talent but were typically born in Asia, trained in the West, and then returned to work in Asia. Asian Scientists on the Move explores why more and more Asian scientists are choosing to return to Asia, and what happens after their return, when these scientists set up labs in Asia and start training the next generation of Asian scientists. Drawing on evocative firsthand accounts from 119 Western-trained Asian scientists about their migration decisions and experiences, and in-depth analysis of the scientific field in four country case studies - China, India, Singapore and Taiwan - the book reveals the growing complexity of the Asian scientist migration system.

Kevin M. King ◽  
Jonathan S. West

Abstract Phoma stem canker / blackleg is an internationally important disease of Brassicas including B. napus (oilseed rape, OSR), caused by multiple genetic subclades of the fungi Plenodomus lingam (formerly Leptosphaeria maculans) and P. biglobosus (L. biglobosa). In Spring 2021, Phoma-like disease symptoms were observed on leaves and stems of Eutrema japonicum (wasabi) crops at three UK sites (Northern Ireland, Southern England and the West Midlands). Fungal isolation from wasabi leaf spots yielded colonies with two distinct phenotypes on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Isolates from the Northern Ireland and Southern England sites had white colonies with abundant pink cirri that were confirmed (based on ITS rDNA, beta tubulin and actin sequences) as P. biglobosus subclade ‘canadensis’ (Pbc). Those from the West Midlands site, however, had yellow pigmented colonies and were confirmed by sequencing as P. biglobosus subclade ‘brassicae’ (Pbb). Greenhouse pathogenicity testing showed that Pbb and Pbc wasabi isolates were pathogenic not only to this host but also OSR, B. oleracea (cabbage), and B. rapa (pak choi). Re-isolation of the fungi was attempted and confirmed from lesions that developed on inoculated OSR and wasabi, thus completing Koch’s postulates. These findings represent new discoveries for both Pbb and Pbc on wasabi, plus for Pbc in Europe. The crop health implications of these results are briefly considered.

2021 ◽  
pp. 096701062110508
Sara de Jong

This article develops a novel analytical framework for capturing the multiple, competing configurations that the migration-security nexus invokes in discourse and practice, combining insights from critical migration and security scholarship. The framework’s application is illustrated with an empirical case study of the protection and relocation of Afghan and Iraqi former local interpreters and other locally employed civilians working for Western armies. The analysis demonstrates that locally employed civilians (LECs) are simultaneously considered security actors in the East and security risks in the West, the ‘best and brightest’ causing brain drain and potential terrorists when crossing borders, both ‘model migrants’ and threats to western values. By uncovering the nexus’s multiple configurations and its contradictions, the framework supports the project of denaturalizing the migration-security nexus, while also showing that the discourses and practices justified through its various configurations include the legitimation of border violence and the denial of protection to migrants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (6) ◽  
pp. 1358-1368
Suwarly Mobiliu ◽  
Ratnawati Ratnawati ◽  
Mega Lestari Khoirunnisa ◽  
Mansyur B. Tomayahu

ABSTRAK Program Kemitraan Wilayah (PKW) merupakan program pengabdian masyarakat yang dilatarbelakangi oleh adanya permasalahan kesehatan dalam suatu wilayah tertentu. Kecamatan Kota Barat memiliki beberapa permasalahan kesehatan yang didapatkan dari Wilayah Kecamatan Kota Barat yaitu distribusi penyakit Asma yang fluktuatif pada Tahun 2017-2019 sebanyak 1477 kasus. Latihan pernapasan merupakan alternatif untuk memperoleh kesehatan yang diharapkan bisa mengefektifkan semua organ dalam tubuh secara optimal dengan olah napas dan olah fisik secara teratur. Hal ini bertujuan untuk mencegah terjadinya penularan COVID-19 pada keluarga dengan riwayat asma di Wilayah Kecamatan Kota Barat Kota Gorontalo. Kegiatan dilaksanakan pada bulan April – Oktober 2020. Kegiatan dimulai dengan melakukan penyuluhan dan demonstrasi latihan pernapasan diafragma, kemudian dilakukan pengukuran nilai Arus Puncak Ekspirasi (APE) pada setiap peserta sebelum dan sesudah latihan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan ini berhasil sesuai dengan indikator keberhasilan yang ditetapkan yaitu sebanyak 50 peserta dari masyarakat Kecamatan Kota Barat yang mengikuti dengan antusias, peningkatan pengetahuan serta peningkatan nilai APE. Kata Kunci: pencegahan Covid-19, napas diafragma, asma, arus puncak respirasi  ABSTRACT The Regional Partnership Program is a community service program that is motivated by the existence of health problems in a certain area. Kota Barat Subdistrict has several health problems obtained from the West City District Area, namely the fluctuating distribution of asthma in 2017-2019 as many as 1477 cases. Breathing exercises are an alternative to obtain health which is expected to make all organs in the body optimally effective with regular breathing and physical exercise. This program aims to prevent transmission of COVID-19 in families with a history of asthma in the Kota Barat District of Gorontalo City. This activity was carried out from April - October 2020. The activity began with conducting counseling and demonstration of diaphragmatic breathing exercises, then measuring the value of Peak Expiratory Flow for each participant before and after the exercise. The results showed that this activity was successful in accordance with the established success indicators, 50 participants from the West Kota Subdistrict community who followed enthusiastically, increased knowledge and increased the value of APE. Keywords: prevention of Covid-19, diaphragmatic breathing, asthma, peak flow of respiration

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1684
Yingjie Sun ◽  
Mark Henderson ◽  
Binhui Liu ◽  
Hong Yan

Climate change affects forest ecosystems at a variety of scales, from the composition of landscapes to the growth of individual trees. Research across regions and tree species has produced contradictory findings on the effects of climate variables on radial growth. Here, we examine tree ring samples taken from four directions of a tree to determine whether there is directional variability in tree growth in relation to climate trends. The results showed directional differences in the temporal growth processes of Pinus koraiensis, with more commonalities between the west and north directions and between the east and south directions. The contemporaneous June maximum temperature was the main climate factor associated with the difference between the growth of tree rings toward the east or west. Annual tree ring growth toward the east was more affected by the year’s temperature while growth toward the south was more sensitive to the year’s precipitation. Our research demonstrates that diverse response of tree growth to climate may exist at intra-individual scale. This contributes to understanding the sensitivity of tree growth to climate change at differ scales.

2021 ◽  
Vol 54 (4) ◽  
pp. 28-53
Magdalena Nowicka-Franczak

This article revisits the category of self-criticism, which, as a speech act, plays a special role in the discourse of the intelligentsia, emerging from the peripheral status of Poland and from the imperative to catch up with the West. In contemporary Poland, self-criticism has revived as a discursive strategy in the context of coming to terms with the democratic transformation. For the right-wing intelligentsia, self-criticism is mainly a postulate that is addressed to political adversaries. For the left-liberal intelligentsia, self-criticism is not only a political weapon but also a strategy of introspective enunciation directed at the post-transformation society. A qualitative discourse analysis of selected acts of self-criticism performed by Polish left-liberal elites between 2013 and 2019 highlights two interconnected conflict-generating fields of debate: (1) reckoning with the neoliberal and pro-Western model of the 1989 democratic transition and (2) retribution on the post-transition intellectual elites that patronized the people and the attribution of responsibility for the Elite-People Division. The distinguished functions of self-criticism point to the political and class conflict as well as to the growing delegitimacy of the dominance of the neoliberal narrative about the Polish model of modernization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (8) ◽  
pp. 1243-1256
Juhadi ◽  
Nur Hamid ◽  
Edy Trihatmoko ◽  
Meri Herlina ◽  
Elvara Norma Aroyandini ◽  

Indonesia is a disaster-prone country but public awareness of disasters is still low. To improve community disaster literacy, schools are the most effective vehicle. Improved disaster mitigation literacy can be achieved by integrating disaster education into subjects taught in school and associating it with the local wisdom owned by the community. This research aimed to determine and learn from the local wisdom of lamban langgakh (stilt houses), develop a disaster mitigation literacy model for subjects in schools, and identify the level of disaster mitigation literacy of junior and senior high school students in the West Coast District (WCR) of Lampung Province. The study was conducted in two stages: identifying and analyzing comprehensive information about lamban langgakh and developing an indirect teaching model as a students’ disaster mitigation literacy model through the ADDIE development model. This research produced a new model to improve students’ disaster mitigation literacy by integrating it with school subjects and local wisdom owned by local communities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Hsiao-Han Chang ◽  
Meng-Chun Chang ◽  
Mathew Kiang ◽  
Ayesha S. Mahmud ◽  
Nattwut Ekapirat ◽  

AbstractIdentifying sources and sinks of malaria transmission is critical for designing effective intervention strategies particularly as countries approach elimination. The number of malaria cases in Thailand decreased 90% between 2012 and 2020, yet elimination has remained a major public health challenge with persistent transmission foci and ongoing importation. There are three main hotspots of malaria transmission in Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani and Sisaket in the Northeast; Tak in the West; and Yala in the South. However, the degree to which these hotspots are connected via travel and importation has not been well characterized. Here, we develop a metapopulation model parameterized by mobile phone call detail record data to estimate parasite flow among these regions. We show that parasite connectivity among these regions was limited, and that each of these provinces independently drove the malaria transmission in nearby provinces. Overall, our results suggest that due to the low probability of domestic importation between the transmission hotspots, control and elimination strategies can be considered separately for each region.

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