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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 489-493
Yung-Sheng Yen ◽  
Han-Yi Cheng ◽  
Hung-Ta Lin

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nano-etched surface and diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface acupuncture needles on human pain perception, by finite element method (FEM). Skin models were reconstructed by 3D computer programs. The stress is an important role in acupuncture needle applications for clinical treatment. Many studies have investigated finite element researches for acupuncture; however, few have evaluated a model for acupuncture with and without\ modified surface. The results revealed that abnormal focusing stress was found when acupuncture with nano-etched surface. Moreover, the unbalance stress was found on the top of the skin model in the nano-etched group, the highest stress also appeared in the top region. Acupuncture with nano-etched surface would be an effective means for stimulating skin. These results indicate subtle but significant effects of acupuncture stimulation with nano-etched surface needles, compared to acupuncture with untreated needles in healthy participants.

Po Yun ◽  
Chen Zhang ◽  
Yaqi Wu ◽  
Yu Yang

The carbon market is recognized as the most effective means for reducing global carbon dioxide emissions. Effective carbon price forecasting can help the carbon market to solve environmental problems at a lower economic cost. However, the existing studies focus on the carbon premium explanation from the perspective of return and volatility spillover under the framework of the mean-variance low-order moment. Specifically, the time-varying, high-order moment shock of market asymmetry and extreme policies on carbon price have been ignored. The innovation of this paper is constructing a new hybrid model, NAGARCHSK-GRU, that is consistent with the special characteristics of the carbon market. In the proposed model, the NAGARCHSK model is designed to extract the time-varying, high-order moment parameter characteristics of carbon price, and the multilayer GRU model is used to train the obtained time-varying parameter and improve the forecasting accuracy. The results conclude that the NAGARCHSK-GRU model has better accuracy and robustness for forecasting carbon price. Moreover, the long-term forecasting performance has been proved. This conclusion proves the rationality of incorporating the time-varying impact of asymmetric information and extreme factors into the forecasting model, and contributes to a powerful reference for investors to formulate investment strategies and assist a reduction in carbon emissions.

Friction ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jiawei Cao ◽  
Qunyang Li

AbstractMechanical vibration, as an alternative of application of solid/liquid lubricants, has been an effective means to modulate friction at the macroscale. Recently, atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and model simulations also suggest a similar vibration-induced friction reduction effect for nanoscale contact interfaces, although an additional external vibration source is typically needed to excite the system. Here, by introducing a piezoelectric thin film along the contact interface, we demonstrate that friction measured by a conductive AFM probe can be significantly reduced (more than 70%) when an alternating current (AC) voltage is applied. Such real-time friction modulation is achieved owing to the localized nanoscale vibration originating from the intrinsic inverse piezoelectric effect, and is applicable for various material combinations. Assisted by analysis with the Prandtl—Tomlinson (P—T) friction model, our experimental results suggest that there exists an approximately linear correlation between the vibrational amplitude and the relative factor for perturbation of sliding energy corrugation. This work offers a viable strategy for realizing active friction modulation for small-scale interfaces without the need of additional vibration source or global excitation that may adversely impact device functionalities.

NAR Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Garrett T Graham ◽  
Saravana P Selvanathan ◽  
Stefan K Zöllner ◽  
Emily Stahl ◽  
Adam Shlien ◽  

ABSTRACT Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a small round blue cell tumor and is the second most frequent pediatric bone cancer. 85% of EwS tumors express the fusion oncoprotein EWS-FLI1, the product of a t(11;22) reciprocal translocation. Prior work has indicated that transcription regulation alone does not fully describe the oncogenic capacity of EWS-FLI1, nor does it provide an effective means to stratify patient tumors. Research using EwS cell lines and patient samples has suggested that EWS-FLI1 also disrupts mRNA biogenesis. In this work we both describe the underlying characteristics of mRNA that are aberrantly spliced in EwS tumor samples as well as catalogue mRNA splicing events across other pediatric tumor types. Here, we also use short- and long-read sequencing to identify cis-factors that contribute to splicing profiles we observe in Ewing sarcoma. Our analysis suggests that GC content upstream of cassette exons is a defining factor of mRNA splicing in EwS. We also describe specific splicing events that discriminate EwS tumor samples from the assumed cell of origin, human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow (hMSC-BM). Finally, we identify specific splicing factors PCBP2, RBMX, and SRSF9 by motif enrichment and confirm findings from tumor samples in EwS cell lines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010200
Aparna Jorapur ◽  
Lisa A. Marshall ◽  
Scott Jacobson ◽  
Mengshu Xu ◽  
Sachie Marubayashi ◽  

The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is involved in the etiology of multiple hematologic and epithelial human cancers. EBV+ tumors employ multiple immune escape mechanisms, including the recruitment of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg). Here, we show some EBV+ tumor cells express high levels of the chemokines CCL17 and CCL22 both in vitro and in vivo and that this expression mirrors the expression levels of expression of the EBV LMP1 gene in vitro. Patient samples from lymphoblastic (Hodgkin lymphoma) and epithelial (nasopharyngeal carcinoma; NPC) EBV+ tumors revealed CCL17 and CCL22 expression of both tumor cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic origin, depending on tumor type. NPCs grown as mouse xenografts likewise showed both mechanisms of chemokine production. Single cell RNA-sequencing revealed in vivo tumor cell-intrinsic CCL17 and CCL22 expression combined with expression from infiltrating classical resident and migratory dendritic cells in a CT26 colon cancer mouse tumor engineered to express LMP1. These data suggest that EBV-driven tumors employ dual mechanisms for CCL17 and CCL22 production. Importantly, both in vitro and in vivo Treg migration was effectively blocked by a novel, small molecule antagonist of CCR4, CCR4-351. Antagonism of the CCR4 receptor may thus be an effective means of activating the immune response against a wide spectrum of EBV+ tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Elena N. Malyuga ◽  
Gayane O. Petrosyan

The paper aims to single out critical success factors contributing to efficient implementation of distance learning practices and to explain the role of project-based learning in ensuring effective teaching of profession-oriented foreign language in a distance format. The authors argue in favor of distance learning as a beneficial educational tool providing for the training of large groups of people regardless of the place of residence and placing a priority on students’ individual capacities. Study design included a preliminary survey of 150 respondents specializing in the natural sciences and the humanities identifying the key analysis criteria, a complex of experimental online lessons incorporating project-based teaching principles, and a summarizing questionnaire verifying respondents’ post-experiment outlooks. The methodology of empirical research was based on a systematic approach and deployed the methods of pedagogical observation, project-based teaching, sociological research, and statistical analysis using Neural Designer software for calculating questionnaire results. Analyzing the obtained results, the authors conclude that: 1) Students specializing in the humanities have a higher motivation to study related minor subjects; 2) interdisciplinary integration using the English language allows to achieve a cumulative effect for major and related minor subjects; 3) interdisciplinary integration based on the project method is an effective means of improving academic performance in major subjects; 4) interdisciplinary integration based on the project method makes it possible to acquaint students with the best practices in their chosen specialty; 5) project method allows to achieve related didactic goals—self-expression, independent continuous learning and the formation of professional competencies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Zahirul A. Talukder ◽  
Vignesh Muthusamy ◽  
Rashmi Chhabra ◽  
Nisrita Gain ◽  
Shashidhar B. Reddappa ◽  

AbstractWaxy maize rich in amylopectin has emerged as a preferred food. However, waxy maize is poor in lysine and tryptophan, deficiency of which cause severe health problems. So far, no waxy hybrid with high lysine and tryptophan has been developed and commercialized. Here, we combined recessive waxy1 (wx1) and opaque2 (o2) genes in the parental lines of four popular hybrids (HQPM1, HQPM4, HQPM5, and HQPM7) using genomics-assisted breeding. The gene-based markers, wx-2507F/RG and phi057 specific for wx1 and o2, respectively were successfully used to genotype BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC2F2 populations. Background selection with > 100 SSRs resulted in recovering > 94% of the recurrent parent genome. The reconstituted hybrids showed 1.4-fold increase in amylopectin (mean: 98.84%) compared to the original hybrids (mean: 72.45%). The reconstituted hybrids also showed 14.3% and 14.6% increase in lysine (mean: 0.384%) and tryptophan (mean: 0.102%), respectively over the original hybrids (lysine: 0.336%, tryptophan: 0.089%). Reconstituted hybrids also possessed similar grain yield (mean: 6248 kg/ha) with their original versions (mean: 6111 kg/ha). The waxy hybrids with high lysine and tryptophan assume great significance in alleviating malnutrition through sustainable and cost-effective means. This is the first report of development of lysine and tryptophan rich waxy hybrids using genomics-assisted selection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Levi A. Tamming ◽  
Diana Duque ◽  
Anh Tran ◽  
Wanyue Zhang ◽  
Annabelle Pfeifle ◽  

SARS-CoV-2 infections present a tremendous threat to public health. Safe and efficacious vaccines are the most effective means in preventing the infections. A variety of vaccines have demonstrated excellent efficacy and safety around the globe. Yet, development of alternative forms of vaccines remains beneficial, particularly those with simpler production processes, less stringent storage conditions, and the capability of being used in heterologous prime/boost regimens which have shown improved efficacy against many diseases. Here we reported a novel DNA vaccine comprised of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein fused with CD40 ligand (CD40L) serving as both a targeting ligand and molecular adjuvant. A single intramuscular injection in Syrian hamsters induced significant neutralizing antibodies 3-weeks after vaccination, with a boost substantially improving immune responses. Moreover, the vaccine also reduced weight loss and suppressed viral replication in the lungs and nasal turbinates of challenged animals. Finally, the incorporation of CD40L into the DNA vaccine was shown to reduce lung pathology more effectively than the DNA vaccine devoid of CD40L. These results collectively indicate that this DNA vaccine candidate could be further explored because of its efficacy and known safety profile.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. e801
Bello Musa Yakubu ◽  
Rabia Latif ◽  
Aisha Yakubu ◽  
Majid Iqbal Khan ◽  
Auwal Ibrahim Magashi

The increasing number of rice product safety issues and the potential for contamination have established an enormous need for an effective strategy for the traceability of the rice supply chain. Tracing the origins of a rice product from raw materials to end customers is very complex and costly. Existing food supply chain methods (for example, rice) do not provide a scalable and cost-effective means of agricultural food supply. Besides, consumers lack the capability and resources required to check or report on the quality of agricultural goods in terms of defects or contamination. Consequently, customers are forced to decide whether to utilize or discard the goods. However, blockchain is an innovative framework capable of offering a transformative solution for the traceability of agricultural products and food supply chains. The aim of this paper is to propose a framework capable of tracking and monitoring all interactions and transactions between all stakeholders in the rice chain ecosystem through smart contracts. The model incorporates a system for customer satisfaction feedback, which enables all stakeholders to get up-to-date information on product quality, enabling them to make more informed supply chain decisions. Each transaction is documented and stored in the public ledger of the blockchain. The proposed framework provides a safe, efficient, reliable, and effective way to monitor and track rice products safety and quality especially during product purchasing. The security and performance analysis results shows that the proposed framework outperform the benchmark techniques in terms of cost-effectiveness, security and scalability with low computational overhead.

2022 ◽  
Mikhail Klimov ◽  
Rinat Ramazanov ◽  
Nadir Husein ◽  
Vishwajit Upadhye ◽  
Albina Drobot ◽  

Abstract The proportion of hard-to-recover reserves is currently increasing and reached more than 65% of total conventional hydrocarbon reserves. This results in an increasing number of horizontal wells put into operation. When evaluating the resource recovery efficiency in horizontal wells, and, consequently, the effectiveness of the development of gas condensate field, the key task is to evaluate the well productivity. To accomplish this task, it is necessary to obtain the reservoir fluid production profile for each interval. Conventional well logging methods with proven efficiency in vertical wells, in case of horizontal wells, will require costly asset-heavy applications such as coiled tubing, downhole tractors conveying well logging tools, and Y-tool bypass systems if pump is used. In addition, the logging data interpretation in the case of horizontal wells is less reliable due to the multiphase flow and variations of the fluid flow rate. The fluorescent-based nanomaterial production profiling surveillance technology can be used as a viable solution to this problem, which enables cheaper and more effective means of the development of hard-to-recover reserves. This technology assumes that tracers are placed downhole in various forms, such as marker tapes for lower completions, markers in the polymer coating of the proppant used for multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, and markers placed as fluid in fracturing fluid during hydraulic fracturing or acid stimulation during bottom-hole treatment. The fundamental difference between nanomaterial tracers production profiling and traditional logging methods is that the former offers the possibility to monitor the production at frac ports in the well for a long period of time with far less equipment and manpower, reduced costs, and improved HSE.

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