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Instruments ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Sergio J. C. do Carmo ◽  
Francisco Alves

The present work describes a method to determine excitation function curves and, therefore, cross-sections, making use of the irradiation of liquid targets at distinct energies in a biomedical cyclotron. The method relies on the derivative of experimentally measured thick target yield curves to determine the corresponding excitation function curves. The technique is presented as a valid and practical alternative to the commonly used activation method combined with the stack monitor technique, whose implementation in liquid targets offers practical difficulties. The working principle is exemplified by presenting the results obtained for the clinically relevant 68Zn(p,n)68Ga and the 64Zn(p,α)61Cu nuclear reactions, obtained though the irradiation of liquid targets containing dissolved natural zinc.

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 48
Laura Righetti ◽  
Sven Gottwald ◽  
Sara Tortorella ◽  
Bernhard Spengler ◽  
Dhaka Ram Bhandari

Fusarium Head Blight is the most common fungal disease that strongly affects Triticum spp., reducing crop yield and leading to the accumulation of toxic metabolites. Several studies have investigated the plant metabolic response to counteract mycotoxins accumulation. However, information on the precise location where the defense mechanism is taking place is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the specific tissue distribution of defense metabolites in two Triticum species and use this information to postulate on the metabolites’ functional role, unlocking the “location-to-function” paradigm. To address this challenge, transversal cross-sections were obtained from the middle of the grains. They were analyzed using an atmospheric-pressure (AP) SMALDI MSI source (AP-SMALDI5 AF, TransMIT GmbH, Giessen, Germany) coupled to a Q Exactive HF (Thermo Fisher Scientific GmbH, Bremen, Germany) orbital trapping mass spectrometer. Our result revealed the capability of (AP)-SMALDI MSI instrumentation to finely investigate the spatial distribution of wheat defense metabolites, such as hydroxycinnamic acid amides, oxylipins, linoleic and α-linoleic acids, galactolipids, and glycerolipids.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 449
Anton Nemykin ◽  
Leonid Frumin ◽  
David Shapiro

We calculate the light transmission by a subwavelength plasmonic array using the boundary element method for parallel cylinders with different cross-sections: circular or elliptic with axis ratio 4:1. We demonstrate that plasmonic resonance is sharper for the case of horizontal ellipses. This structure is susceptible to refractive index variations in the media since the high derivatives of reflection and transmission coefficients are near the angle of total internal reflection. To obtain an approximate analytical expression, we used the model of a metallic layer. We explore the “sandwich” structure with an anisotropic film between two dielectrics and demonstrate its quantitative agreement with numerical results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Petra Bandelj ◽  
Polona Juntes ◽  
Gorazd Vengušt ◽  
Diana Žele Vengušt

This study describes two female wapitis (Cervus canadensis) with neurological signs associated with an Elaphostrongylus cervi (E. cervi) infection. The original host of the nematode parasite is the Eurasian red deer (Cervus elaphus), although other cervids and small ruminants may also be affected. The two wapitis imported from Canada were kept in an enclosure with the Slovenian red deer herd. After developing debilitating neurological signs, the wapitis were euthanized and examined for possible causes. A histopathological examination of the brain of the first wapiti revealed severe diffuse perivascular meningoencephalitis with chronic vasculitis, and some cross-sections of nematodes were found in the leptomeninges. A necropsy of the second wapiti revealed severe pachymeningitis and leptomeningitis, where several adult nematode parasites were found. E. cervi was confirmed by molecular methods. The prevalence of E. cervi in the European red deer population is high, but no study has been conducted to assess its prevalence in Slovenia. This was the first confirmation of E. cervi in Slovenia and the first infection with this parasite described in Europe in a wapiti. Elaphostrongylus cervi should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in Europe for all ruminants grazing on pastures frequented by red deer and showing neurological clinical signs.

Universe ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Sema Küçüksucu ◽  
Mustafa Yiğit ◽  
Nils Paar

The (n,α) reaction contributes in many processes of energy generation and nucleosynthesis in stellar environment. Since experimental data are available for a limited number of nuclei and in restricted energy ranges, at present only theoretical studies can provide predictions for all astrophysically relevant (n,α) reaction cross sections. The purpose of this work is to study (n,α) reaction cross sections for a set of nuclei contributing in the weak s-process nucleosynthesis. Theory framework is based on the statistical Hauser-Feshbach model implemented in TALYS code with nuclear masses and level densities based on Skyrme energy density functional. In addition to the analysis of the properties of calculated (n,α) cross sections, the Maxwellian averaged cross sections are described and analyzed for the range of temperatures in stellar environment. Model calculations determined astrophysically relevant energy windows in which (n,α) reactions occur in stars. In order to reduce the uncertainties in modeling (n,α) reaction cross sections for the s-process, novel experimental studies are called for. Presented results on the effective energy windows for (n,α) reaction in weak s-process provide a guidance for the priority energy ranges in the future experimental studies.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Ivan D. Skurlov ◽  
Wenxu Yin ◽  
Azat O. Ismagilov ◽  
Anton N. Tcypkin ◽  
Haohang Hua ◽  

Metal halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) attract much attention for light-emitting applications due to their exceptional optical properties. More recently, perovskite NCs have begun to be considered a promising material for nonlinear optical applications. Numerous strategies have recently been developed to improve the properties of metal halide perovskite NCs. Among them, B-site doping is one of the most promising ways to enhance their brightness and stability. However, there is a lack of study of the influence of B-site doping on the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic perovskite NCs. Here, we demonstrate that Cd2+ doping simultaneously improves both the linear (higher photoluminescence quantum yield, larger exciton binding energy, reduced trap states density, and faster radiative recombination) and nonlinear (higher two- and three-photon absorption cross-sections) optical properties of CsPbBr3 NCs. Cd2+ doping results in a two-photon absorption cross-section, reaching 2.6 × 106 Goeppert-Mayer (GM), which is among the highest reported for CsPbBr3 NCs.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 262
Shankar A. Hallad ◽  
Nagaraj R. Banapurmath ◽  
Avinash S. Bhadrakali ◽  
Arun Y. Patil ◽  
Anand M. Hunashyal ◽  

The development of radiation attenuation materials with lean cross-sections is the need of the hour. However, the inherent threat of radiations accompanying these processes is of major concern. Thus, in an attempt to shield unnecessary radiations, several novel materials have been fabricated alongside the conventional materials available. Yet, there is a need for cost-effective, efficient shielding materials that have good mechanical strength and effective shielding properties. The present work investigates ceramic composite behaviors and radiation shielding capacity reinforced with lead oxide nano-powder. Developed nano-lead-based cement composites were subjected to mechanical tests to determine flexural and compressive strengths to check their suitability for structural applications. Further, the gamma attenuation test of the composites was conducted to determine their neutron absorption capacity. The addition of nano-leadoxide in the control beams was varied from 0.7 to 0.95 and 1 wt.% of the ceramic matrix. The percentage of nano-leadoxide that gives the best results in both enhanced properties and economic aspects was determined to be 0.6 wt.% of the cement.

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