ABSTRACT This paper aimed to evaluate the moderation by variables related to incentives for earnings management (indebtedness, profitability, and size) over the effect of the change in standards (accounting or tax) on the book-tax differences (BTD). The end of the Transitional Tax Regime (RTT) enables us to evaluate the symmetry between the divergence and reconvergence of the accounting and tax standards, helping to identify the moderating effect of characteristics such as size, leverage, and profitability over the use of the discretion allowed by the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Studying the effects of changes in the standards contributes to understanding how they affect accounting information quality, particularly when we observe symmetrical movements of divergence of the accounting and tax standards, such as IFRS adoption, and of reconvergence, with the end of the RTT. The analysis conducted enables us to separate effects of divergence between the tax and accounting standards from the innovations introduced by the IFRS. An understanding of the effect of the standard over accounting information quality contributes to the quality of the work of financial analysts, tax authorities, and regulators. Event studies are conducted to evaluate the effect of IFRS adoption, as well as the end of the RTT, over the BTD (a proxy for earnings management), in cross sections of companies. We use explanatory variables related to incentives to manage book and taxable income (indebtedness, profitability, and size), which could explain the ambiguity of the results in the literature. The article provides evidence that the indebtedness and size of companies influence the effect of IFRS adoption, as well as of the end of the RTT. We observed a negative relationship of indebtedness and size with the impact of changes in standards over differences between book and taxable income (BTD).
We report the results of 167 calcite twinning strain analyses (131 limestones and 36 calcite veins, n = 7368 twin measurements)t from the Teton–Gros Ventre (west; n = 21), Wind River (n = 43), Beartooth (n = 32), Bighorn (n = 32), and Black Hills (east; n = 11) Laramide uplifts. Country rock limestones record only a layer-parallel shortening (LPS) strain fabric in many orientations across the region. Synorogenic veins record both vein-parallel shortening (VPS) and vein-normal shortening (VNS) fabrics in many orientations. Twinning strain overprints were not observed in the limestone or vein samples in the supracrustal sedimentary veneer (i.e., drape folds), thereby suggesting that the deformation and uplift of Archean crystalline rocks that form Laramide structures were dominated by offset on faults in the Archean crystalline basement and associated shortening in the midcrust. The twinning strains in the pre-Sevier Jurassic Sundance Formation, in the frontal Prospect thrust of the Sevier belt, and in the distal (eastern) foreland preserve an LPS oriented approximately E-W. This LPS fabric is rotated in unique orientations in Laramide uplifts, suggesting that all but the Bighorn Mountains were uplifted by oblique-slip faults. Detailed field and twinning strain studies of drape folds identified second-order complexities, including: layer-parallel slip through the fold axis (Clarks Fork anticline), attenuation of the sedimentary section and fold axis rotation (Rattlesnake Mountain), rotation of the fold axis and LPS fabric (Derby Dome), and vertical rotations of the LPS fabric about a horizontal axis with 35% attenuation of the sedimentary section (eastern Bighorns). Regional cross sections (E-W) across the Laramide province have an excess of sedimentary veneer rocks that balance with displacement on a detachment at 30 km depth and perhaps along the Moho discontinuity at 40 km depth. Crustal volumes in the Wyoming Province balance when deformation in the western hinterland is included.
We analyzed 37 large oceanic intraplate earthquakes (M >6). The largest (M >7) are mainly concentrated under the Indian Ocean. Moderate events (6 < M < 7) are sparsely distributed under the Indian Ocean and other oceans where lithospheric ages are between 90 Ma and 20 Ma. Oceanic intraplate events related to mantle plumes or hotspots are rare, though low-velocity anomalies beneath hotspots are a common feature. Tomographic cross sections for Indian Ocean areas with large intraplate earthquakes indicate strong heterogeneity in the mantle. These earthquakes are explained by shallow stress variations caused by a combination of tectonic forces including slab-pull, ridge-push, drag by mantle flow, plume-push, and buoyancy forces as a consequence of low-velocity anomalies in the mantle. Oceanic intraplate seismicity in the Indian Ocean is related to the large-scale, low-velocity anomaly structure around the Ninety East Ridge.
At its present stage of internationalization of education, its architecture and forms have changed. The study of these aspects requires an integrated approach. Increasing the volume of exports of educational services remains a priority for Russia, which, according to the authors, does not realize its educational export potential sufficiently. The purpose of the article is to reveal the features of the current stage of internationalization of higher education through the compilation of its complex characteristics by a set of cross-sections, to interpret the calculations obtained in a new way, to identify new facts and factors affecting the development trend and to develop proposals for Russia as an exporter of educational services. The main sources used were the statistical databases of the WTO, the EEC of the EAEU. Analytical approach, comparative and statistical analysis were used. As a result, the authors found confirmation of the continuing trend of growth in global spending on education, the volume of investments in the global market of educational services, an increase in the number of foreign students, and the preservation of Russia's share in the number of foreign students. The authors also identified new characteristics of the global educational services market, such as: the acceleration of the growth rate of global exports of educational services, the decline in the share of the United States and the growth of the share of the UAE in the global educational services market, the transformation of Asian countries from donors to recipient countries of educational services.
The prediction of differential cross-sections in hadron-hadron
scattering processes is typically performed in a scheme where the
heavy-flavour quarks (c, b, tc,b,t)
are treated either as massless or massive partons. In this work, a
method to describe the production of colour-singlet processes which
combines these two approaches is presented. The core idea is that the
contribution from power corrections involving the heavy-quark mass can
be numerically isolated from the rest of the massive computation.
These power corrections can then be combined with a massless computation
(where they are absent), enabling the construction of differential
cross-section predictions in a massive variable flavour number scheme.
As an example, the procedure is applied to the low-mass Drell-Yan
process within the LHCb fiducial region, where predictions for the
rapidity and transverse-momentum distributions of the lepton pair are
provided. To validate the procedure, it is shown how the
coefficient of a massless computation can be recovered from the massless
limit of the massive one. This feature is also used to differentially
extract the massless N^3LON3LO
coefficient of the Drell-Yan process in the gluon-fusion channel.