health surveillance
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Vibration ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 59-79
Author(s):  
Anurag Dubey ◽  
Vivien Denis ◽  
Roger Serra

Health surveillance in industries is an important prospect to ensure safety and prevent sudden collapses. Vibration Based Structure Health Monitoring (VBSHM) is being used continuously for structures and machine diagnostics in industry. Changes in natural frequencies are frequently used as an input parameter for VBSHM. In this paper, the Frequency Shift Coefficient (FSC) is used for the assessment of various numerical damaged cases. An FSC-based algorithm is employed in order to estimate the positions and severity of damages using only the natural frequencies of healthy and unknown (damaged) structures. The study focuses on cantilever beams. By considering the minimization of FSC, damage positions and severity are obtained. Artificially damaged cases are assessed by changes in its positions, the number of damages and the size of damages along with the various parts of the cantilever beam. The study is further investigated by considering the effect of uncertainty on natural frequencies (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) in damaged cases, and the algorithm is used to estimate the position and severity of the damage. The outcomes and efficiency of the proposed FSC based method are evaluated in order to locate and quantify damages. The efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated by locating and quantifying double damages in a real cantilever steel beam using vibration measurements.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jordana LaFantasie ◽  
Francis Boscoe

The association between multi-dimensional deprivation and public health is well established, and many area-based indices have been developed to measure or account for socioeconomic status in health surveillance. The Yost Index, developed in 2001, has been adopted in the US for cancer surveillance and is based on the combination of two heavily weighted (household income, poverty) and five lightly weighted (rent, home value, employment, education and working class) indicator variables. Our objectives were to 1) update indicators and find a more parsimonious version of the Yost Index by examining potential models that included indicators with more balanced weights/influence and reduced redundancy and 2) test the statistical consistency of the factor upon which the Yost Index is based. Despite the usefulness of the Yost Index, a one-factor structure including all seven Yost indicator variables is not statistically reliable and should be replaced with a three-factor model to include the true variability of all seven indicator variables. To find a one-dimensional alternative, we conducted maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis on a subset of all possible combinations of fourteen indicator variables to find well-fitted one-dimensional factor models and completed confirmatory factor analysis on the resulting models. One indicator combination (poverty, education, employment, public assistance) emerged as the most stable unidimensional model. This model is more robust to extremes in local cost of living conditions, is comprised of ACS variables that rarely require imputation by the end-user and is a more parsimonious solution than the Yost index with a true one-factor structure.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262174
Author(s):  
Valentina Tonelotto ◽  
Annamaria Davini ◽  
Laura Cardarelli ◽  
Milena Calderone ◽  
Paola Marin

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test Kit, a rapid immunochromatographic assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Moreover, we sought to point out the strategy adopted by a local company to lift the lockdown without leading to an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, by performing a precise and timely health surveillance. Methods The rapid Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test was performed immediately after sampling following the manufacturer’s instructions. RT-PCRs were performed within 24 hours of specimen collection. A total amount of 253 nasopharyngeal samples from 121 individuals were collected between March 16 and April 2, 2021 and tested. Results Of 253 nasopharyngeal samples, 11 (9.1%) were positive and 242 (90.9%) were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR assays. The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test’s mean sensitivity and specificity were 84,6% (95% CI, 54.6–98.1%) and 100% (95% CI, 98.6–100%), respectively. Two false negative test results were obtained from samples with high RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct). Conclusion Our study suggested that Fluorecare SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Test can be introduced into daily diagnostic practice, as its mean sensitivity and specificity follow the standards recommended by WHO and IFCC Task Force. In addition, we underlined how the strategy adopted by a local company to risk assessment and health surveillance was appropriate for infection containment. This real-life scenario gave us the possibility to experience potential approaches aimed to preserve public health and work activities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Janeth George ◽  
Barbara Häsler ◽  
Erick V. G. Komba ◽  
Mark Rweyemamu ◽  
Sharadhuli I. Kimera ◽  
...  

A strong animal health surveillance system is an essential determinant of the health of animal and human population. To ensure its functionality and performance, it needs to be evaluated regularly. Therefore, a process evaluation was conducted in this study to assess animal health surveillance processes, mechanisms and the contextual factors which facilitate or hinder uptake, implementation and sustainability of the system in Tanzania. A mixed-method study design was used to evaluate the national animal health surveillance system guided by a framework for process evaluation of complex interventions developed by Moore and others. The system was assessed against standard guidelines and procedures using the following attributes: fidelity, adherence, exposure, satisfaction, participation rate, recruitment and context. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected using a cross-sectional survey, key informant interviews, document review, site visits and non-participant observation. Data from questionnaires were downloaded, cleaned and analyzed in Microsoft™ Excel. Qualitative data were analyzed following deductive thematic and content analysis methods. Fidelity attribute showed that case identification is mainly based on clinical signs due to limited laboratory services for confirmation. Data collection was not well-coordinated and there were multiple disparate reporting channels. Adherence in terms of the proportion of reports submitted per month was only 61% of the target. District-level animal health officials spent an average of 60% of their weekly time on surveillance-related activities, but only 12% of them were satisfied with the surveillance system. Their dissatisfaction was caused by large area coverage with little to no facilitation, poor communication, and lack of a supporting system. The cost of surveillance data was found to be 1.4 times higher than the annual surveillance budget. The timeliness of the system ranged between 0 and 153 days from the observation date (median = 2 days, mean = 6 days). The study pointed out some deviations in animal health surveillance processes from the standard guidelines and their implication on the system's performance. The system could be improved by developing a user-friendly unified reporting system, the active involvement of subnational level animal health officials, optimization of data sources and an increase in the horizon of the financing mechanism.


2022 ◽  
pp. 84-103
Author(s):  
Ana Cláudia Figueiró ◽  
Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse ◽  
Gisele Cazarin ◽  
Juliana Martins Barbosa da Silva Costa ◽  
Yluska Almeida Coelho dos Reis

The objective is to describe the implementation and development of the Training Program for Health Surveillance Actions (2013-2018), which focuses on improving the performance of health surveillance. It is an evaluation research with a qualitative method. Key informants were interviewed, and documents and literature were analyzed. The analysis enabled the construction of the timeline, the retrieval of the chronology of the events that marked the development of the program, its implementation, and the identification of innovations and controversies. The authors identified three organizational axes: conception/formulation, implementation/monitoring, evaluation/communication. They found that the program went beyond the traditional approach to surveillance and met regional diversities. There were controversies about the responsibility for monitoring the program's actions, whether they belonged to the technical areas related to the indicators or to the management of the program at the Ministry of Health.


2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fernanda de Brito Matiello ◽  
Jeniffer Stephanie Marques Hilário ◽  
Ellen Cristina Gondim ◽  
Darci Neves Santos ◽  
Débora Falleiros de Mello

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify scientific knowledge about the attention to health surveillance and development of Brazilian children under the age of three years involving the Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) Syndrome. Data sources: This is an integrative literature review of primary studies with Brazilian children under three years of age from 2015 to 2019. The searches were carried out in the databases Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS), US National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), SCOPUS and Web of Science. It was carried out by crossing the keywords in English (child, child development and Zika virus) and in Portuguese (criança, desenvolvimento infantil e Zika vírus), with the combination of the Boolean operator “AND”. Data synthesis: The knowledge produced is related to the specific health and development problems of children affected by the Congenital ZIKV Syndrome, with clinical characteristics, care demands, multiprofessional performance, health monitoring and surveillance needs. Conclusions: This integrative review synthesized scientific knowledge by adding aspects that reinforce the relevance of appropriate approaches to assess and care for children, linked to the engagement of caregivers, the need to document, evaluate and track the situations of children in early childhood and long-term, management coordination of care and its challenges in the context of primary health care.


FACETS ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 25-44
Author(s):  
Jolene A. Giacinti ◽  
E. Jane Parmley ◽  
Mark Reist ◽  
Daniel Bayley ◽  
David L. Pearl ◽  
...  

The protection and promotion of healthy wildlife populations is emerging as a shared goal among stakeholders in the face of unprecedented environmental threats. Accordingly, there are growing demands for the generation of actionable wildlife health information. Wildlife health surveillance is a connected system of knowledge that generates data on a range of factors that influence health. Canada recently approved the Pan-Canadian Approach to Wildlife Health that describes challenges facing wildlife health programs and provides a path forward for modernizing our approach. This scoping review was undertaken to describe the range of peer-reviewed Canadian wildlife health surveillance literature within the context of the challenges facing wildlife health programs and to provide a quantitative synthesis of evidence to establish baselines, identify gaps, and inform areas for growth. This review describes patterns related to species, location, authorship/funding, objectives, and methodology. Five areas are identified that have the potential to propel the field of wildlife health: representativeness, expanded/diversified collaboration, community engagement, harmonization, and a shift to a solutions-focused and One Health mindset. This scoping review provides a synopsis of 10 years of Canadian wildlife health surveillance, challenges us to envision the future of successful wildlife health surveillance, and provides a benchmark from which we can measure change.


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