herbaceous plant
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2022 ◽  
Vol 507 ◽  
pp. 120008
Katarzyna Rawlik ◽  
Marek Kasprowicz ◽  
Mirosław Nowiński ◽  
Andrzej M. Jagodziński

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 167
Dae-Seok Lee ◽  
Younho Song ◽  
Yoon-Gyo Lee ◽  
Hyeun-Jong Bae

Cellulase adsorption onto lignin decreases the productivity of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Here, adsorption of enzymes onto different types of lignin was investigated, and the five major enzymes—cellobiohydrolases (CBHs), endoglucanase (Cel7B), β-glucosidase (Cel3A), xylanase (XYNIV), and mannanase (Man5A)—in a cellulase cocktail obtained from Trichoderma reesei were individually analyzed through SDS-PAGE and zymogram assay. Lignin was isolated from woody (oak and pine lignin) and herbaceous (rice straw and kenaf lignin) plants. The relative adsorption of CBHs compared to the control was in the range of 14.15–18.61%. The carbohydrate binding motif (CBM) of the CBHs contributed to higher adsorption levels in oak and kenaf lignin, compared to those in pine and rice lignin. The adsorption of endoglucanase (Cel7B) by herbaceous plant lignin was two times higher than that of woody lignin, whereas XYNIV showed the opposite pattern. β-glucosidase (Cel3A) displayed the highest and lowest adsorption ratios on rice straw and kenaf lignin, respectively. Mannanase (Man5A) was found to have the lowest adsorption ratio on pine lignin. Our results showed that the hydrophobic properties of CBM and the enzyme structures are key factors in adsorption onto lignin, whereas the properties of specific lignin types indirectly affect adsorption.

Yusra Tafheem S

Abstract: Nigella sativa is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the Ranunculaceae family and produces seeds known as black seed or black cumin. Black seed has been used in various civilization around the world for centuries to treat various ailments. It is widely used in a variety of traditional medical systems, including Unani, Ayurveda, and Siddha. Black seed is considered to be nutritionally dense, with high levels of fat, protein, dietary fibre, calcium, and iron. The seed is known to have a wide range of pharmacological properties which are supported by numerous studies. Extensive research has been carried out over decades to confirm the seed’s anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, antilipidemic, anti-cancer, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective properties etc. Black seed has earned a position among the top ranked evidence-based herbal medicines due to its marvellous healing properties. Studies have revealed that the presence of thymoquinone, a major bioactive component of the seed essential oil, is responsible for the majority of its therapeutic properties. Consumption of the seeds for an extended period of time has been shown to have significant effects on lowering blood glucose levels, improving lipid profiles, and other biochemical parameters. The minor or negligible toxicological effects of black seed and its active constituent, thymoquinone, support its long-term use in traditional food and medicine. Because of their low toxicity, black seed is frequently used in food as a flavouring agent, additive in breads, and pickles. The current review summarises the composition, important pharmacological studies, dosage and toxicity of the Blackseed and its application in food industry.

2021 ◽  
Asli Aykac ◽  
Kerem Teralı ◽  
Dilek Özbeyli ◽  
Seren Ede ◽  
Ömercan Albayrak ◽  

Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive functions (dementia) and represents a growing public health concern since the population in the age groups at risk is increasing. The latter raises an urgent need to translate research findings in the basic brain and behavioral sciences into anti-AD drugs and disease-modifying therapies. Origanum onites (L.), also called Turkish oregano, is a perennial and herbaceous plant species grown for centuries for medicinal, cosmetic and culinary purposes. This is the first study to investigate the putative neuroprotective and pro-cognitive activities of O. onites essential oil (OOEO) against scopolamine-induced amnesia of AD-type in Wistar albino rats. The results of behavioral tests revealed that OOEO administration was able to significantly alleviate learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine in vivo. The observed effects could be attributed to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity, attenuation of oxidative stress and prevention of neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of AD rats. Modulation of pro-inflammatory enzymes, including cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase, might further contribute to the neuroprotective properties of OEOO, as predicted by our in silico models. These findings offer novel insights into the therapeutic potential of OEOO in patients with AD.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-22
Arcadius Puwein ◽  
Shiny C. Thomas

Paris polyphylla Smith is an erect and herbaceous plant. It has rich chemical constituents such steroidal saponins, phytosterols, flavonoids, and alkaloids that possess antimicrobial and anticancer activities. In the current investigation, we examined the effect of different solvents in the extraction yield and further purification via column chromatography. The ground powdered rhizomes of P. polyphylla was extracted with 100% hexane, 100% ethyl acetate, 70% ethanol, and 70% methanol. The extracts were filtered, evaporated using a rotary evaporator, concentrated, and measured. Subsequently, the solvent with high extraction yield was further purified using column chromatography. Ethanol produced the highest extraction yield as compared to the other solvents. About 30 fractions were eluted which was pooled into four fractions based on the Rf values and bands observed through thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13245
Yu-Jie Ke ◽  
Qing-Dong Zheng ◽  
Ya-He Yao ◽  
Yue Ou ◽  
Jia-Yi Chen ◽  

MYB transcription factors of plants play important roles in flavonoid synthesis, aroma regulation, floral organ morphogenesis, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Cymbidium ensifolium is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to Orchidaceae, with special flower colors and high ornamental value. In this study, a total of 136 CeMYB transcription factors were identified from the genome of C. ensifolium, including 27 1R-MYBs, 102 R2R3-MYBs, 2 3R-MYBs, 2 4R-MYBs, and 3 atypical MYBs. Through phylogenetic analysis in combination with MYB in Arabidopsis thaliana, 20 clusters were obtained, indicating that these CeMYBs may have a variety of biological functions. The 136 CeMYBs were distributed on 18 chromosomes, and the conserved domain analysis showed that they harbored typical amino acid sequence repeats. The motif prediction revealed that multiple conserved elements were mostly located in the N-terminal of CeMYBs, suggesting their functions to be relatively conserved. CeMYBs harbored introns ranging from 0 to 13 and contained a large number of stress- and hormone-responsive cis-acting elements in the promoter regions. The subcellular localization prediction demonstrated that most of CeMYBs were positioned in the nucleus. The analysis of the CeMYBs expression based on transcriptome data showed that CeMYB52, and CeMYB104 of the S6 subfamily may be the key genes leading to flower color variation. The results lay a foundation for the study of MYB transcription factors of C. ensifolium and provide valuable information for further investigations of the potential function of MYB genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 1035-1045
D Dananirroh ◽  
Urmatul Waznah ◽  
W Wirasti ◽  
S Slamet

AbstractMusa paradisiaca Linn, also known as the banana plant in Indonesia, is a herbaceous plant that belongs to the Musaceaa family. Cotton banana peel (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) can be used as a wound medicine. For use, it is still simple, namely by applying the inside of the banana peel to the injured body part, and by scraping the banana peel from the inside to bandage the wound. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a dosage form of this cotton banana peel so that it is easier and provides comfort in its use. Purpose: To find out the skin of cotton banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) is formulated in cream preparations. The method in this study was experimental, the sample was extracted by maceration using 96% ethanol as solvent. The viscous extract obtained was used at concentrations of 0.08%, 0.10%, and 0.12%. The results showed that cotton banana peel extract (Musa paradisiaca Linn) could be made as a cream and fulfilled the physical evaluation of the preparation. The results of the homogeneity test were that the preparations were made homogeneous, the pH of the cream was obtained at pH 5-7 still fulfilling the skin pH range of 4-7, the adhesion test results obtained more than 5 seconds, the dispersion test results obtained 6-7 cm, the viscosity test at formula I is 3564 – 4253 cPas, Formula II is 4042 – 4746 cPas, Formula III is 4466 – 5254 cPas. The conclusion of this study, the formulation of the ethanol extract cream of cotton banana peel (Musa paradisiaca Linn) met the requirements for physical evaluation of the preparation including homogeneity test, pH test, organoleptic test, dispersibility test, adhesion test, viscosity test and stability test.Keywords: Formulation, banana peel, cream, evaluation. AbstrakMusa paradisiaca Linn atau dikenal dengan nama tumbuhan pisang di Indonesia adalah tumbuhan herba yang termasuk dalam keluarga Musaceaa. Kulit buah pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) dapat digunakan sebagai obat luka. Untuk penggunaan masih sederhana yaitu dengan mengoleskan bagian dalam dari kulit buah pisang pada bagian tubuh yang luka, dan dengan cara mengorek kulit buah pisang dari dalam untuk membalut luka. Untuk itu perlu adanya pengembangan bentuk sediaan dari kulit pisang kapas ini sehingga lebih memudahkan dan memberikan kenyamanan dalam penggunaannya. Tujuan Untuk mengetahui kulit buah pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn) diformulasikan dalam sediaan krim. Metode pada penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksprimental, sampel di ekstraksi dengan cara maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol 96%. Ekstrak kental yang diperoleh digunakan pada konsentrasi 0.08%, 0.10%, dan 0.12%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak kulit pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn) dapat dibuat sebagai krim dan memenuhi evaluasi fisik sediaan. Hasil uji homogenitas bahwa sediaan yang dibuat homogen, pH krim diperoleh pH 5-7 masih memenuhi kisaran pH kulit 4-7, uji daya lekat hasil yang diperoleh lebih dari 5 detik, uji daya sebar hasil yang diperoleh 6 – 7 cm, uji viskositas pada formula I yaitu 3564 – 4253 cPas, Formula II yaitu 4042 – 4746 cPas, Formula III yaitu 4466 – 5254 cPas. Kesimpulan pada penelitian ini, formulasi sediaan krim ekstrak etanol kulit pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn) memenuhi syarat evaluasi fisik sediaan meliputi uji homogenitas , uji pH, uji organoleptis, uji daya sebar, uji daya lekat, uji viskositas dan uji stabilias.Kata kunci: Formulasi, kulit pisang, krim, evaluasi.

Iryna Bugalska

The analysis of the main meteorological indicators, given according to the data of hydrometeorological post  in the village of Hrymailiv for the last fifteen years, is presented. The dynamics of changes in the average annual, monthly and daily, minimum, maximum air temperatures, precipitation, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, etc. has been studied for the Nature Reserve "Medobory", the analysis of climatic features of months for the period of 2006-2020 is carried out. The temperature mode of the Reserve during the year is marked by considerable fluctuations of temperatures: from + 18,9ºС in July to -4,7ºС in January. The established duration of seasons is marked by strong variability, which is a sign of climate changing: the shortest and latest winter in the period of investigation recorded in 2016, began on December 29 and lasted 42 days, and the longest one - in 2018, lasted 130 days; the longest spring was in 2020 - 116 days, the shortest one - in 2018, lasted 30 days. The longest summer in 2018 lasted 147 days; in 2017-2018 a significant decrease in average daily air temperatures in the first half of July was observed; August and September parts of summer in 2016-2020 were hot, with fairly high maximums and very little precipitation. The latest beginning of autumn for the entire observation period is September 27, 2020, the shortest season - in 2016, only 53 days. The duration of autumn decreases, the average value reaches 75 days, the duration of summer increases - 112 days. It is noted that the nature of precipitation has changed - rain falls in the form of heavy, short-term showers, for one downpour the monthly norm of precipitations can fall out; over the last five years, the average length of the growing season has increased by 19 days and 13 days more than the average for fifteen years,  the sum of active temperatures above the average for the last five years by 299.3ºC, for the last fifteen years - by 183.5ºС. On the territory of the Nature Reserve "Medobory" other local manifestations of climate changing were recorded, expressed as follows: the average annual air temperature over the past five years increased by 0.5 ° C (the warmest for the entire observation period was 2020 with an average temperature of 10, 1ºС, just then there were 43 days in winter (61%) with positive daily average air temperatures); meteorological natural phenomena of nature became more frequent: heavy rains, snowfalls, heavy hail showers, ice, fogs, dust storms, ice frosting-up; exceeded the maximum air temperature for the last five years: October 3, 2016 (27.0 ° C), August 3, 2017 (38.5 ° C), May 25, 2018 (34.0 ° C), 21 June 2018 (34.0ºC), March 31, 2019 (21.2ºC), and the minimum - June 8, 2016 (0.0°C), July 7, 2017 (4.7°C), September 30, 2018 (-2.5°C), April 1, 2020 (-7.0°C). The latest spring light frost recorded on May 22, 2020 (-1.0ºC), which led to mass frosting-up of herbaceous plant species. Every autumn at the end of September, light frosts are already registered: -1.5ºC - September 28, 2016, -1.0ºC and -0.9ºC - September 29 and  September 30, 2017, -2.5ºC - September 30, 2018, - 1.8ºС - September 21, 2019, -1.0ºС - September 19, 2020, the last one - the earliest during the observation period and also in the summer part of September. For the first time in 2020, the relative humidity in March was 16% below normal, mainly due to the second and third decades (58% and 47% correspondingly), in April it was only 39% - 27% below normal. Such deviations were not observed even in the dry summer and autumn months. Key words: air temperature, precipitation, climatic seasons, meteorological natural phenomena.

Iwona Sobkowiak-Tabaka ◽  
Krystyna Milecka ◽  
Lucy Kubiak-Martens ◽  
Dominik Pawłowski ◽  
Aldona Kurzawska ◽  

AbstractThis paper summarises the results of multidisciplinary research, including pollen, plant macroremains, diatoms, Cladocera, molluscs and geochemistry from a 14C dated core and geomorphological records, which reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental conditions faced by Late Palaeolithic hunter-gathers in western Poland. Particular attention was paid to evidence for both human activity and the degree to which Late Palaeolithic groups may have affected the local environment, as recorded by the biogenic sediments in lakes located close to their campsites. Vegetation first appears locally in the Oldest Dryas, and consisted of subarctic tundra vegetation. During the Bølling period the landscape was generally open, with dwarf shrubs and scattered patches of Juniperus and Hippophaë shrubs. Betula (tree birch) expanded locally in the area only in the later Allerød; during the second part of the Allerød period, Pinus and Populus joined birch as a sparse woodland developed. During the Younger Dryas, the landscape changed significantly in comparison to the preceding warm period, as result of cooling and drying of the climate. The presence of microscopic charcoal and charred herbaceous plant particles made it possible to detect human activity. These analyses allowed us to reconstruct fire events near the site during its occupation by Hamburg and Federmesser cultural groups. An increase in the proportion of biogenic elements such as Na, K and Mg in the sediments indicate soil erosion, reflecting the activity of Hamburg groups. A relative increase in the frequency of Cladocera which favour eutrophic and turbid water was recorded in the period linked to Federmesser group activities. The intense use of this area was also indicated during the Younger Dryas.

Etnobotanika ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-16
Marija Marković ◽  
Dejan Pljevljakušić ◽  
Vesna Stankov Jovanović

Agrimonia eupatoria is perennial herbaceous plant from family Rosaceae, characterized by pinnate leaves, and yellow spike-like racemose inflorescences. It flowers from June to September, and above ground part of plants are collected for medicinal purposes. Survey on participants' knowledge and use of medicinal plants in the Pirot County was carried in the form of interviews in four municipalities: Pirot, Babušnica, Bela Palanka and Dimitrovgrad. Out of the total number of respondents, which amounted to 631, it was noted that 34 people knew the use of common agrimony. The largest number of respondents mentioned common agrimony against the group of urinary diseases (19 reports). A small number of respondents have mentioned the use against prostate disease (6 reports) and treatment of wounds (5 reports). Five reports against the group of digestive tract diseases were recorded. The results were compared with other ethnopharmacological studies from Serbia and the Balkan Peninsula. The following applications of common agrimony were not mentioned in previous ethnopharmacological investigations in Serbia and Balkan Peninsula: for circulation, for the heart, against varicose veins, catarrh of the stomach, for colon, for the stomach, bile, liver, prostate disease, against kidney and urinary tract sand, and diseases of internal organs.

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