Fomasi litologi akuifer batugamping mempunyai karakteristik media aliran berupa celah, rekahan, dan lorong pelarutan, sehingga memiliki potensi mengalirkan airtanah dengan kecepatan tinggi. Produktivitas yang tinggi ini mengakibatkan sumber pencemar di permukaan dapat dengan cepat meresap ke sistem akuifer dan bercampur dengan airtanah; kondisi inilah yang memicu kerentanan tinggi. Salah satu langkah pengelolaan airtanah pesisir adalah penentuan zona kerentanan airtanah terhadap pencemaran. Dengan demikian, tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat kerentanan airtanah pesisir terhadap pencemaran di formasi batugamping menggunakan metode COP dengan pendekatan intrinsik dan metode EPIK dengan pendekatan perkembangan karst. Hasil penilaian menggunakan kedua metode tersebut menunjukkan tingkat kerentanan rendah hingga sangat tinggi. Pemetaan metode COP menghasilkan dua kelas kerentanan: rendah (95% dari luas wilayah) dan sedang (4%), sedangkan metode EPIK menghasilkan zona indeks kerentanan yang lebih panjang dengan empat kelas kerentanan, yaitu rendah (1,23%), sedang (17,82%), tinggi (17,82%), dan sangat tinggi (21,65%). Dibandingkan dengan COP, EPIK menghasilkan kelas kerentanan yang lebih tinggi karena pengaruh koefisien pembobot pada formula penghitungannya. Hasil penilaian kerentanan divalidasi dengan indikator limbah domestik berupa senyawa nitrat (NO3). Uji laboratorium menunjukkan kandungan nitrat (NO3) airtanah yang bervariasi dari 0,12 mg/l (terendah) hingga 9,80 mg/l (tertinggi). Variasi ini masih berada di bawah baku mutu air minum tetapi di atas baku mutu air limbah domestik atau melebihi kadar nitrat di alam. Berdasarkan hasil validasi, zona kerentanan berkorelasi dengan kandungan nitrat (NO3). Pada zona kerentanan yang tinggi, ditemukan kadar nitrat yang tinggi pula.ABSTRACTA limestone aquifer is lithologically characterized by three flow media: fissures, fractures, and dissolution channels, thus creating the potential to drain groundwater at a high rate. This high productivity, however, means that the groundwater is highly vulnerable to pollution. If a pollutant source is present on the surface, it can quickly seep into and mix with the subsurface system. Among the widely proposed management strategies is groundwater vulnerability zoning. This study was intended to determine the degrees of coastal groundwater vulnerability to pollution in a limestone formation with two methods: COP intrinsic vulnerability) and EPIK (karst development-based vulnerability). The assessment results showed that the vulnerability produced with both methods varied from low to very high. In the mapping, COP produced two levels: low (95% of the total area) and medium (4%), while EPIK generated a longer vulnerability index zone with four levels: low (1.23%), medium (17.82%), high (17.82%), and very high (21.65%). Compared to COP, EPIK results in a higher vulnerability class due to the weighting values in its vulnerability assessment. The results were validated with a domestic waste indicator: the presence of nitrate (NO3). Laboratory tests showed NO3 concentrations in the range 0.12 of 9.80 mg/l. These figures are still below the quality standard for drinking water but above that of domestic wastes or exceeding the maximum NO3 content found in nature. The validation revealed that the vulnerability zone is correlated with NO3 levels: the higher the vulnerability class of the zone, the higher the nitrate content.
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. are protozoa that have a significant impact on animal health due to the diseases they cause in domestic and wild animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii and Neospora spp. in cats from northern Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 180 cats in the municipality of Araguaína, Tocantins and used to evaluate the presence of anti-T. gondii and anti-Neospora spp. antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test, with a cutoff of 1:64 and 1:25, respectively. The association between infection and individual animal characteristics (age, sex, origin, breed, and clinical signs) was tested using univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that 48.3% (87/180) of the animals had anti-T. gondii (95% CI: 40.8%–55.90%) and 3.9% (7/180) had anti-Neospora spp. (95% CI: 1.6%–7.8%) antibodies. There was no association between age, sex, breed origin, clinical signs, and seropositivity for T. gondii. Cats of defined breeds were more likely to be infected by Neospora spp. (OR = 10.7). Therefore, we found a high rate of seropositivity for T. gondii and a high rate of occurrence of Neospora infections in cats from the Araguaína region. The exposure of the feline population to the studied coccidia indicates the need to monitor the feline population for these infections and underscores the importance of effective sanitary measures against such pathogens.
Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.
The warm weather and high relative humidity in Malaysia are ideal for the survival and
proliferation of mycotoxigenic fungi leading to a high rate of stored product
contamination. This study was conducted to enumerate and characterise the
mycotoxigenic fungi associated with commonly consumed food grains in Kelantan,
Malaysia. The fungal bioburden and fungal identification from forty-four composite food
samples comprising 11 samples each of maize, wheat, rice, and peanuts from open
markets in Kelantan, Malaysia, were determined using standard mycological techniques.
A total of 115 mould fungal isolates belonging to 12 species were isolated, of which
Aspergillus flavus (17.39%), A. versicolor (13.04%), A. felis (12.17%), Neoscytalidium
dimidiatum (11.3%), Penicillium cheresanum (11.3%) and P. chrysogenum (8.7%), were
predominant. Peanuts were the most contaminated (9.7×105 ± 1.5×105 CFU/g) followed by
maize (7.5×105 ± 1.8×106 CFU/g), wheat (1.9×105 ± 2.6×105 CFU/g), and rice (9.9×104 ±
1.5×105 CFU/g). The levels of the mycotoxigenic fungi in peanut, maize, and wheat were
above the permissible limit of 102 CFU/g set by the Malaysian Ministry of Health and 102
to 105 CFU/g set by the International Commission for Microbiological Specification for
Foods, signifying that they are unsafe for use as food or feed ingredients. Hence, there is a
need for more stringent control measures.
Despite high rate of vaccination coverage with 2-doses of measles containing vaccine among Iranian children, outbreaks of measles occurred among different age groups and fully vaccinated subjects. Although the main reason for these outbreaks is unknown, however, vaccine failure was supposed to be an important cause. This study was designed to determine the seroconversion rates to measles- mumps- rubella (MMR) vaccine currently in use among Iranian children.
This prospective study was conducted among healthy children older than 12 months who were candidates of scheduled MMR vaccination. Blood samples were obtained from each mother- infant pair just before vaccination, and from infants 4–6 weeks after MMR1 and MMR2 immunization. Collected sera were tested for specific lgG antibodies against MMR agents using ELISA method. The proportion of seroprotected subjects among mother- infant pairs before vaccination as well as the prevalence rates of seroconversion after MMR1 and MMR2 vaccination were calculated. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods.
During 22-months study period, 92 mother- infant pairs were participated. Seroimmunity rates against MMR viruses were 85.8%, 84.7% and 86.9% for mothers, and 3.2%, 2.1% and 1.0% for children, respectively. After MMR1 vaccination from 52 seronegative children, 80.7%, 78.8% and 75% were seroconverted. These rates increased to 94.8%, 89.7% and 94.8% after the MMR2 vaccination. Also, the specific immunity was enhanced among seropositive children.
Majority of the mothers and few infants were immune to MMR viruses prior to MMR1 vaccination. Immune responses detected after MMR1 injection, and overall seroconversion rates achieved after 2-doses of MMR vaccination were less than expected and inadequate to preserve long-term protection against MMR agents.