Identifying the spatio-temporal distribution hotspots of fishes and allocating priority conservation areas could facilitate the spatial planning and efficient management. As a flagship commercial fishery species, Largehead hairtail (Trichiurus japonicus) has been over-exploited since the early 2000s. Therefore, the spatio-temporal management of largehead hairtail nursery grounds could effective help its recovery. This study aims to predict juvenile largehead hairtail distribution patterns and identify priority conservation areas for nursery grounds. A two-stage hierarchical Bayesian spatio-temporal model was applied on independent scientific survey data (Catch per unit effort, CPUE) and geographic/physical variables (Depth, Distance to the coast, Sea bottom temperature, Dissolved oxygen concentration and Net primary production) to analyze the probability of occurrence and abundance distribution of juvenile largehead hairtail. We assessed the importance of each variable for explaining the occurrence and abundance. Using persistence index, we measured the robustness of hotspots and identified persistent hotspots for priority conservation areas. Selected models showed good predictive capacity on occurrence probability (AUC = 0.81) and abundance distribution (r = 0.89) of juvenile largehead hairtail. Dissolved oxygen, net primary production, and sea bottom temperature significantly affected the probability of occurrence, while distance to the coast also affected the abundance distribution. Three stable nursery grounds were identified in Zhejiang inshore waters, the largest one was located on the east margin of the East China Sea hairtail national aquatic germplasm resources conservation zones (TCZ), suggesting that the core area of nursery grounds occurs outside the protected areas. Therefore, recognition of these sites and their associated geographic/oceanic attributes provides clear targets for optimizing largehead hairtail conservation efforts in the East China Sea. We suggested that the eastern and southern areas of TCZ should be included in conservation planning for an effective management within a network of marine protected areas.
The semidiurnal internal tides (ITs) on the continental slope of the southeastern East China Sea (ECS) exhibited abrupt enhancement in November of 2017. This enhancement resulted from the intensification of the coherent semidiurnal ITs. Coherent and incoherent semidiurnal ITs had a comparative energy contribution in October; however, coherent semidiurnal ITs dominated with a variance contribution of 90% in November. The variance contribution of vertical modes of the semidiurnal ITs varied between October and November, and the mode with most variance contribution changed from the second mode to the first mode. Altimeter data and the observed background currents indicated that the Kuroshio mainstream meandered and abruptly intruded into the ECS in November. The upper layer background currents were significantly related to the kinetic energy of the semidiurnal ITs, and the correlation coefficient between them reached 0.81. The frequent occurrences of the Kuroshio intrusion have suggested that the ITs in the ECS are susceptible to the modulation of the Kuroshio current. Numerical modeling and predication of ITs should consider the meander of the Kuroshio mainstream.
Using bulk formulas, two-year platform (fastened to the seabed) hourly observations from 2016 to 2017 in the East China Sea (121.6° E, 32.4° N) are used to investigate the role of the tide-induced surface elevation in changing the fixed observational height and modifying the momentum and air-sea turbulent heat fluxes. The semidiurnal tide-dominated elevation anomalies ranging from −3.6 to 3.9 m change the fixed platform observational height. This change causes hourly differences in the wind stress and latent and sensible heat fluxes between estimates with and without considering surface elevation, with values ranging from −1.5 × 10−3 Nm−2, −10.2 Wm−2, and −3.6 Wm−2 to 2.2 × 10−3 Nm−2, 8.4 Wm−2, and 4.6 Wm−2, respectively. More significant differences occur during spring tides. The differences show weak dependence on the temperature, indicating weak seasonal variations. The mean (maximum) difference percentage relative to the mean magnitude is approximately 3.5% (7%), 1.5% (3%), and 1.5% (3%) for the wind stress and latent and sensible heat fluxes, respectively. The boundary layer stability (BLS) can convert from near-neutral conditions to stable and unstable states in response to tide-induced changes in the observational height, with a probability of occurrence of 2%. Wind anomalies play dominant roles in determining the hourly anomalies of the latent heat flux, regardless of the state of the BLS. Extreme cases, including the cold air outbreak in 2016, tropical cyclones Meranti in 2016, and Ampil in 2018, are also examined. This study will facilitate future observation-reanalysis comparisons in the studied coastal region where ocean–atmosphere-land interactive processes are significant.
Vertical distribution of phytoplankton composition in the East China Sea (ECS) and Tsushima Strait (TS) was highly variable in the region where the Changjiang River diluted water (CDW), Kuroshio water (KW), and Tsushima water (TW) intersected. An in-situ multiple excitation fluorometer was used to obtain the high-resolution phytoplankton groups data from every meter of the water column. Sharp differences were noted in the distribution of phytoplankton groups in the CDW, KW, and TW. In the CDW, brown algae were generally present ~60% of all depths with exception of subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum (SCM), whereas cyanobacteria (>40%) and green algae plus cryptophytes (>40%) were found above and below the SCM, respectively. In TW, where chlorophyll a (CHL) was lower than in the CDW, brown algae predominated the water column (>60%) and SCM (>80%), except the surface layer where cyanobacteria dominated. In KW, a high fraction of cyanobacteria (>40%) extended up to 40 m, while brown and green algae dominated (>60%) the deeper waters below 40 m at western and eastern stations, respectively. These results can be further related to water property and nutrient concentration of the water masses in each region. This new data show that the in-situ multiple excitation fluorometer can be a powerful tool to estimate high-resolution vertical profiles of phytoplankton groups on a large scale in marine environments.