brown algae
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2022 ◽  
Robert Fletcher

Brown Seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) of Britain and Ireland provides the first complete, up-to-date, detailed illustrated guide and keys to the nearly 200 species of brown algae present around the coasts of Britain and Ireland. It is the culmination of over 30 years of field and laboratory studies by the author. Following an exhaustive introduction that covers the biology and ecology of brown seaweeds, a checklist of species is set out, followed by clear and user-friendly keys to the genera. Particular attention is then paid to providing detailed illustrations, and the volume holds more than 300 compound plates of line drawings and photographs in its extensive taxonomic treatment. Comprehensive information is given on the geographical and seasonal distributions, synonymy, morphology, anatomy, cytology, reproduction, life histories, taxonomy, systematics and bibliographic material pertaining to each species. Notably, this flora offers a much fuller consideration of many of the lesser known, more cryptic microscopic brown algae than previously available. Further, the book also contains the results of much original research undertaken by the author. This will surely remain a standard reference work on brown seaweeds for many years to come – an indispensable research tool and field guide for phycologists and students throughout the North Atlantic region and beyond.

2022 ◽  
Yulia Shokina ◽  
Yulia Kuchina ◽  
Ksenya Savkina ◽  
Elena Novozhilova ◽  
Katya Tatcienko ◽  

The high content of iodine in dried algae has allowed it to be used as a physiologically functional food ingredient in the technology of fortified foods, which can help prevent iodine deficiency. The aim of this research was to develop a technology for food products enriched with iodine (Italian crispbreads), as well as fermented dairy products (thick and drinking yoghurts with various fruit fillings). The brown algae Laminaria saccharina, which originates from the islandFrøya (in Norway), was used to enrich the products with iodine. This algaewas grown on the farms of the company ”Energy Solutions AS” and was dried by various methods of low-temperature drying (heat pump at a temperature of minus 10 ∘C, drying in 1-3 layers; vacuum freeze drying with pre-storage at a temperature of minus 8 ∘C; and pre-freezing and storing at a temperature of minus 25 ∘C for 2-6 days). The chemical composition of the algae was studied. The findings showed that the modes of pretreatment of algae and the method of cold drying did not influence the following indicators (in % of the total mass of dried algae): the mass fraction of water (6.00±0.50% to 6.93±0.50%),ash (46.40-50.14%), andsodium chloride (31.00±1.75%). The above technological factors substantially affected the content of protein and iodine in the dried algae. Thus, the mass fraction of protein varied from 5.88% to 12.35% per total mass, and iodine varied from 0.367% to 0.522% in terms of dry matter. The optimal dosage of dried algae for adding to raw material was calculated (which provided anabove-stated iodine content of % of the recommended level of adequate consumption in 100g of the developed products): from 66% in crispbreads to 88% in fermented dairy products. All new products provided a high level of organoleptic evaluation. Keywords: brown algae, Laminaria saccharina, iodine, functionalproduct, crispbreads, drinking yoghurts, thick yoghurts

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jorge Gabriel Orozco-González ◽  
Fernando Amador-Castro ◽  
Angela R. Gordillo-Sierra ◽  
Tomás García-Cayuela ◽  
Hal S. Alper ◽  

Climate change (along with other factors) has caused an increase in the proliferation of brown algal mats floating freely along the Atlantic Ocean since 2011. These brown algae mats are composed of sea plants from the Sargassum genus. The gargantuan agglomeration of biomass flows alongside currents and lands in beaches belonging to the Eastern coasts of the Mexican Caribbean and several other countries in the region. These events, dubbed golden tides, harm the local economy and environment. Current elimination approaches involve the mechanical harvesting of the Sargassum and ultimate landfill disposal. However, explorations into the commercial application of other brown algae have elucidated the potential of Sargassum as a feedstock for valorization. This review informs the trends, challenges, and opportunities presented by the coastal invasion of this biomass. Primarily, the potential use of this material is as a precursor in biorefineries where multiple value-added products are generated concurrent with the ultimate production of biofuels.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 55
Nurlindah Hamrun ◽  
Bahruddin Talib ◽  
Muhammad Ruslin ◽  
Hasminar Pangeran ◽  
Mochammad Hatta ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the potential use of brown algae Sargassum polycystum as irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) impression material. Potassium alginate extracted from Sargassum polycystum was prepared in three different compositions (14%, 15%, and 16%) and mixed with other standard components to form an alginate impression material. Prior to that, the purity of potassium alginate was quantified with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. As a control material, the alginate impression material from a commercially available product was used. All alginate impression materials were then applied to a die stone model. Dimensional accuracy was measured by calculating the mesiodistal width of incisors in the generated dental cast using a digital caliper 0.01 accuracy (five replications). In addition, to evaluate the dimensional stability, the impression results were poured at four different periods (immediately, 5 min, 10 min, and 15 min). An independent t-test was performed to compare the measurement results with p < 0.05 considered significant. Analytical results confirm that the impression material containing 15% potassium alginate gives the best dimensional accuracy similar to control (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, the optimal dimensional stability was produced in the impression material containing 16% potassium alginate. Our study suggested that brown algae Sargassum polycystum has a promising potential to be used as an alginate impression material in clinical application.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 358
Reem Al Monla ◽  
Zeina Dassouki ◽  
Nouha Sari-Chmayssem ◽  
Hiba Mawlawi ◽  
Hala Gali-Muhtasib

Brown seaweeds are producers of bioactive molecules which are known to inhibit oncogenic growth. Here, we investigated the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and apoptotic effects of two polysaccharides from the brown algae Colpomenia sinuosa, namely fucoidan and alginate, in a panel of cancer cell lines and evaluated their effects when combined with vitamin C. Fucoidan and alginate were isolated from brown algae and characterized by HPLC, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopy. The results indicated that highly sulfated fucoidans had higher antioxidant and cytotoxic effects than alginate. Human colon cancer cells were the most sensitive to the algal treatments, with fucoidan having an IC50 value (618.9 µg/mL−1) lower than that of alginate (690 µg/mL−1). The production of reactive oxygen species was increased upon treatment of HCT-116 cells with fucoidan and alginate, which suggest that these compounds may trigger cell death via oxidative damage. The combination of fucoidan with vitamin C showed enhanced effects compared to treatment with fucoidan alone, as evidenced by the significant inhibitory effects on HCT-116 colon cancer cell viability. The combination of the algal polysaccharides with vitamin C caused enhanced degeneration in the nuclei of cells, as evidenced by DAPI staining and increased the subG1 population, suggesting the induction of cell death. Together, these results suggest that fucoidan and alginate from the brown algae C. sinuosa are promising anticancer compounds, particularly when used in combination with vitamin C.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qian Xu ◽  
Shengqiang Wang ◽  
Chiho Sukigara ◽  
Joaquim I. Goes ◽  
Helga do Rosario Gomes ◽  

Vertical distribution of phytoplankton composition in the East China Sea (ECS) and Tsushima Strait (TS) was highly variable in the region where the Changjiang River diluted water (CDW), Kuroshio water (KW), and Tsushima water (TW) intersected. An in-situ multiple excitation fluorometer was used to obtain the high-resolution phytoplankton groups data from every meter of the water column. Sharp differences were noted in the distribution of phytoplankton groups in the CDW, KW, and TW. In the CDW, brown algae were generally present ~60% of all depths with exception of subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum (SCM), whereas cyanobacteria (&gt;40%) and green algae plus cryptophytes (&gt;40%) were found above and below the SCM, respectively. In TW, where chlorophyll a (CHL) was lower than in the CDW, brown algae predominated the water column (&gt;60%) and SCM (&gt;80%), except the surface layer where cyanobacteria dominated. In KW, a high fraction of cyanobacteria (&gt;40%) extended up to 40 m, while brown and green algae dominated (&gt;60%) the deeper waters below 40 m at western and eastern stations, respectively. These results can be further related to water property and nutrient concentration of the water masses in each region. This new data show that the in-situ multiple excitation fluorometer can be a powerful tool to estimate high-resolution vertical profiles of phytoplankton groups on a large scale in marine environments.

2022 ◽  
pp. 119134
Maria Piñeiro-Ramil ◽  
Noelia Flórez-Fernández ◽  
Olalla Ramil-Gómez ◽  
María Dolores Torres ◽  
Herminia Domínguez ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 66 (1) ◽  
Mohammed I. Rushdi ◽  
Iman A. M. Abdel- Rahman ◽  
Hani Saber ◽  
Eman Zekry Attia ◽  
Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen

Abstract. Genus Dictyopteris is an important genus among marine seaweeds and is excessively distributed and known by its ocean smell due to its secondary metabolites including C11-hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds. This chemical feature is responsible for its interesting biological properties. This review detected the literature from 1959 to 2021 on the genus Dictyopteris and revealed the secondary metabolites, together with biological activities of the genus Dictyopteris to create the base for additional studies on its clinical and pharmaceutical applications.   Resumen. El género Dictyopteris es un género importante entre las algas marinas y está excesivamente distribuido y conocido por su olor a océano debido a sus metabolitos secundarios que incluyen hidrocarburos C11 y compuestos de azufre. Esta característica química es responsable de sus interesantes propiedades biológicas. Esta revisión detectó la literatura de 1959 a 2021 sobre el género Dictyopteris y reveló los metabolitos secundarios, junto con las actividades biológicas del género Dictyopteris, para crear la base para estudios adicionales sobre sus aplicaciones clínicas y farmacéuticas.

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