During the towing of semisubmersible platforms, waves impact and superpose in front of the platform to form a ridge shaped “water ridge”, which protrudes near the platform and produces a large slamming pressure. The water ridges occur frequently in the towing conditions of semisubmersible platforms. The wave–slamming on the braces and columns of platform is aggravated due to the water ridges, particularly in rough sea conditions. The effect of water ridges is usually ignored in slamming pressure analysis, which is used to check the structural strengths of the braces and columns. In this paper, the characteristics of the water ridge at the braces of a semisubmersible platform are studied by experimental tests and numerical simulations. In addition, the sensitivity of the water ridge to the wave height and period is studied. The numerical simulations are conducted by a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, and their accuracy is validated based on experimental tests. The characteristics of the water ridge and slamming pressure on the braces and columns are studied in different wave conditions based on the validated numerical model. It is found that the wave extrusion is the main reason of water ridge. The wave–slamming pressure caused by the water ridge has an approximately linear increase with the wave height and is sensitive to the wave period. With the increase of the wave period, the wave–slamming pressure on the brace and column of the platform increases first and then decreases. The maximum wave–slamming pressure is found when the wave period is 10 s and the slamming pressure reduces rapidly with an increase of wave period.
The genus Vibrio currently contains 147 recognized species widely distributed, including pathogens for aquatic organisms. Vibrio infections in elasmobranchs are poorly reported, often with identifications as Vibrio sp. and without detailed diagnostic insights. The purpose of this paper is the description of the isolation and identification process of Vibrio spp. following a mortality event of Scyliorhinus canicula juvenile reared in an Italian public aquarium. Following investigations aimed at excluding the presence of different pathogens of marine fish species (parasites, bacteria, Betanodavirus), several colonies were isolated and subjected to species identification using the available diagnostic techniques (a biochemical test, MALDI-TOF MS, and biomolecular analysis). Discrepancies were observed among the methods; the limits of biochemistry as a unique tool for Vibrio species determination were detected through statistical analysis. The use of the rpoB gene, as a diagnostic tool, allowed the identification of the isolates as V. crassostreae and V. cyclotrophicus. Although the pathogenic role of these microorganisms in lesser-spotted dogfish juveniles has not been demonstrated, and the presence of further pathogens cannot be excluded, this study allowed the isolation of two Vibrio species in less-studied aquatic organisms, highlighting the weaknesses and strengths of the different diagnostic methods applied.
This paper presents the matching characteristics of impellers and guide vanes of high capacity and pressure seawater desalination pumps by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The single-stage pump is numerically calculated, and its external characteristics are consistent with the test results of model pump. Taking this scheme as a prototype, the research is carried out from three aspects: (i) the impeller blade outlet width; (ii) the number of impeller and guide vane blades; and (iii) the area ratio of impeller outlet to guide vane inlet. The results indicate that the blade outlet width significantly affects the pump head and efficiency. Appropriately increasing the number of guide vane blades or changing the number of impeller blades can improve efficiency and expand the high-efficiency area. Additionally, increasing the throat area of the guide vane has the opposite effect on the large flow and small flow area of the pump. An optimized hydraulic model design scheme is obtained.
Tank sloshing is widely present in many engineering fields, especially in the field of marine. Due to the trend of large-scale liquid cargo ships, it is of great significance to study the coupled motion response of ships with tanks in beam waves. In this study, the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method and experiments are used to study the response of a ship with/without a tank in beam waves. All the computations are performed by an in-house CFD solver, which is used to solve RANS (Reynold Average Navier-Stokes) equations coupled with six degrees-of-freedom solid-body motion equations. The Level Set Method is used to solve the free surface. Verification work on the grid number and time step size has been conducted. The simulation results agree with the experimental results well, which shows that the numerical method is accurate enough. In this paper, several different working conditions are set up, and the effects of the liquid height in the tank, the size of the tank and the wavelength ratio of the incident wave on the ship’s motion are studied. The results show the effect of tank sloshing on the ship’s motion in different working conditions.
The automatic identification system (AIS) was introduced in the maritime domain to increase the safety of sea traffic. AIS messages are transmitted as broadcasts to nearby ships and contain, among others, information about the identification, position, speed, and course of the sending vessels. AIS can thus serve as a tool to avoid collisions and increase onboard situational awareness. In recent years, AIS has been utilized in more and more applications since it enables worldwide surveillance of virtually any larger vessel and has the potential to greatly support vessel traffic services and collision risk assessment. Anomalies in AIS tracks can indicate events that are relevant in terms of safety and also security. With a plethora of accessible AIS data nowadays, there is a growing need for the automatic detection of anomalous AIS data. In this paper, we survey 44 research articles on anomaly detection of maritime AIS tracks. We identify the tackled AIS anomaly types, assess their potential use cases, and closely examine the landscape of recent AIS anomaly research as well as their limitations.
The semidiurnal internal tides (ITs) on the continental slope of the southeastern East China Sea (ECS) exhibited abrupt enhancement in November of 2017. This enhancement resulted from the intensification of the coherent semidiurnal ITs. Coherent and incoherent semidiurnal ITs had a comparative energy contribution in October; however, coherent semidiurnal ITs dominated with a variance contribution of 90% in November. The variance contribution of vertical modes of the semidiurnal ITs varied between October and November, and the mode with most variance contribution changed from the second mode to the first mode. Altimeter data and the observed background currents indicated that the Kuroshio mainstream meandered and abruptly intruded into the ECS in November. The upper layer background currents were significantly related to the kinetic energy of the semidiurnal ITs, and the correlation coefficient between them reached 0.81. The frequent occurrences of the Kuroshio intrusion have suggested that the ITs in the ECS are susceptible to the modulation of the Kuroshio current. Numerical modeling and predication of ITs should consider the meander of the Kuroshio mainstream.
The e-navigation concept was introduced by the IMO to enhance berth-to-berth navigation towards enhancing environmental protection, and safety and security at sea by leveraging technological advancements. Even though a number of e-navigation testbeds including some recognized by the IALA exist, they pertain to parts only of the Integrated Navigation System (INS) concept. Moreover, existing e-navigation and bridge testbeds do not have a cybersecurity testing functionality, therefore they cannot be used for assessing the cybersecurity posture of the INS. With cybersecurity concerns on the rise in the maritime domain, it is important to provide such capability. In this paper we review existing bridge testbeds, IMO regulations, and international standards, to first define a reference architecture for the INS and then to develop design specifications for an INS Cyber-Physical Range, i.e., an INS testbed with cybersecurity testing functionality.
In the past few decades, there have been many numerical studies on the scour around offshore pipelines, most of which concern two-dimensional setups, with the pipeline infinitely long and the flow perpendicular to the pipeline. Based on the Ansys FLUENT flow solver, this study establishes a numerical tool to study the three-dimensional scour around pipelines of finite lengths. The user-defined functions are written to calculate the sediment transport rate, update the bed elevation, and adapt the computational mesh to the new boundary. The correctness of the model has been verified against the measurements of the conventional two-dimensional scour around a long pipe and the three-dimensional scour around a sphere. A series of computations are subsequently carried out to discover how the scour hole is dependent on the pipeline length. It is found that the equilibrium scour depth increases with the pipeline length until the pipeline length exceeds four times the pipe diameter.
Neopyropia yezoensis is an economically important marine crop that can survive dehydrating conditions when nets are lifted from seawater. During this process, production of oxygen radicals and the resulting up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes mediated by the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway played an important role. However, there were no reports about the significance regarding the protection of seaweed throughout the entire production season. Especially, in new aquatic farms in Shandong Province that were formed when traditional N. yezoensis cultivation moved north. Here, we determined the levels of ABA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), soluble protein, chlorophyll, and cell wall polysaccharides in samples collected at different harvest periods from Jimo aquatic farm, Shandong Province. The activities and expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and antioxidant enzymes in the corresponding samples were also determined. Combined with the monitoring data of sea surface temperature and solar light intensity, we proposed that the cultivation of N. yezoensis in Shandong Province was not affected by high-temperature stress. However, photoinhibition in N. yezoensis usually occurs at noon, especially in March. Both the activities and the expression of NOX and antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated continuously. It is reasonable to speculate that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NOX induced the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes through the ABA signaling pathway. Although antioxidant enzymes play a pivotal role during the cultivation of N. yezoensis, the production of ROS also caused a shift in gene expression, accumulation of secondary metabolites, and even decreased the chlorophyll pool size, which eventually led to a decrease in algae assimilation. Accordingly, we suggest that the dehydration of N. yezoensis nets should be adopted when necessary and the extent of dehydration should be paid special consideration to avoid an excessive cellular response caused by ROS.