heat fluxes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 237 ◽  
pp. 111866
Roberto Parot ◽  
José Ignacio Rivera ◽  
Pedro Reszka ◽  
José Luis Torero ◽  
Andrés Fuentes

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-59
Paul J. Kushner ◽  
Russell Blackport ◽  
Kelly E. McCusker ◽  
Thomas Oudar ◽  
Lantao Sun ◽  

Abstract Analyzing a multi-model ensemble of coupled climate model simulations forced with Arctic sea-ice loss using a two-parameter pattern-scaling technique to remove the cross-coupling between low- and high-latitude responses, the sensitivity to high-latitude sea-ice loss is isolated and contrasted to the sensitivity to low-latitude warming. In spite of some differences in experimental design, the Northern Hemisphere near-surface atmospheric sensitivity to sea-ice loss is found to be robust across models in the cold season; however, a larger inter-model spread is found at the surface in boreal summer, and in the free tropospheric circulation. In contrast, the sensitivity to low-latitude warming is most robust in the free troposphere and in the warm season, with more inter-model spread in the surface ocean and surface heat flux over the Northern Hemisphere. The robust signals associated with sea-ice loss include upward turbulent and longwave heat fluxes where sea-ice is lost, warming and freshening of the Arctic ocean, warming of the eastern North Pacific relative to the western North Pacific with upward turbulent heat fluxes in the Kuroshio extension, and salinification of the shallow shelf seas of the Arctic Ocean alongside freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic. In contrast, the robust signals associated with low-latitude warming include intensified ocean warming and upward latent heat fluxes near the western boundary currents, freshening of the Pacific Ocean, salinification of the North Atlantic, and downward sensible and longwave fluxes over the ocean.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (3) ◽  
pp. 359-366

Daytime energy balance at the surface in cloudy tropical conditions for Ile-Ife; Nigeria (7°33'N, 4°34'E) is investigated based on a series of micrometeorological measurements performed in October/November of 1998. For the humid environment that it is (mixing ratio, 17 -25 g / kg), magnitudes of the latent heat flux were much larger than the values for the sensible heat. Of the morning hours the average value for the Bowen ratio obtained was 0.36, while for the afternoons it was 0.74. As the soil surface became dried up in the afternoons, magnitudes of both sensible heat and ground heat fluxes were found to be comparable.   Fluctuations in the magnitudes of the terms of the surface energy balance correlated well to the cloud amount, degree of soil wetness, air temperature and humidity. But of all these factors, the variation in the amount of cloudiness appeared most dominant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 127-142
Georg Lackner ◽  
Florent Domine ◽  
Daniel F. Nadeau ◽  
Annie-Claude Parent ◽  
François Anctil ◽  

Abstract. Arctic landscapes are covered in snow for at least 6 months of the year. The energy balance of the snow cover plays a key role in these environments, influencing the surface albedo, the thermal regime of the permafrost, and other factors. Our goal is to quantify all major heat fluxes above, within, and below a low-Arctic snowpack at a shrub tundra site on the east coast of Hudson Bay in eastern Canada. The study is based on observations from a flux tower that uses the eddy covariance approach and from profiles of temperature and thermal conductivity in the snow and soil. Additionally, we compared the observations with simulations produced using the Crocus snow model. We found that radiative losses due to negative longwave radiation are mostly counterbalanced by the sensible heat flux, whereas the latent heat flux is minimal. At the snow surface, the heat flux into the snow is similar in magnitude to the sensible heat flux. Because the snow cover stores very little heat, the majority of the upward heat flux in the snow is used to cool the soil. Overall, the model was able to reproduce the observed energy balance, but due to the effects of atmospheric stratification, it showed some deficiencies when simulating turbulent heat fluxes at an hourly timescale.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
pp. 69-74
H. N. DUTTA ◽  

During the ninth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica, in the year 1990, a micro-meteorological tower was installed at Maitri (70° S, 12° E) on the rocky terrain and on an experimental basis, on the nearby ice-shelf at the location of Dakshin Gangotri (70° 7¢ S, 11° 7¢ E). The synoptic features strongly influencing over the sites are the southeasterly  katabatic winds from the polar cap and/or northerly low level warm and humid winds from the sea. These flows are responsible for the formation of strong surface based inversion and strong convective conditions at the ice shelf and rocky terrain during the minimum and maximum insolation periods, respectively. This paper presents a study of surface layer structure over two contrasting surfaces on near-coastal Antarctica and deals with the significance of the energy exchange processes over the rocky Antarctic region and the parameterization of turbulent fluxes over surfaces having strong inversion/convection conditions. The paper makes use of turbulence structure functions  which are different from the conventional one given by Panofsky and Dutton (1984).

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Mamadou Ndiaye ◽  
Peter Myler ◽  
Baljinder K. Kandola

In thermoplastic composites, the polymeric matrix upon exposure to heat may melt, decompose and deform prior to burning, as opposed to the char-forming matrices of thermoset composites, which retain their shape until reaching a temperature at which decomposition and ignition occur. In this work, a theoretical and numerical heat transfer model to simulate temperature variations during the melting, decomposition and early stages of burning of commonly used thermoplastic matrices is proposed. The scenario includes exposing polymeric slabs to one-sided radiant heat in a cone calorimeter with heat fluxes ranging from 15 to 35 kW/m2. A one-dimensional finite difference method based on the Stefan approach involving phase-changing and moving boundary conditions was developed by considering convective and radiative heat transfer at the exposed side of the polymer samples. The polymers chosen to experimentally validate the simulated results included polypropylene (PP), polyester (PET), and polyamide 6 (PA6). The predicted results match well with the experimental results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (4) ◽  
pp. 669-678
O. O. JEGEDE ◽  
Th. FOKEN ◽  

The Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) method is the most widely used for estimating the fluxes of sensible heat and latent heat near the surface largely because of its conceptual simplicity and the robustness of instrumentation required. We have adopted the same technique here to study partitioning of measured available energy (difference of net radiation and soil heat flux) over bare soil at a humid tropical location in Ile-Ife, Nigeria (7° 33' N, 4° 34' E) between 7 and 10 March, 1999. Results obtained of the diurnal variations of the both fluxes in relation to the changing surface conditions (case studies) are quite satisfactory. For dry days, the sensible heat flux is comparatively of the same magnitude as the latent heat flux but it is less, about 10-60% for the wet surface conditions. It is clear from the present study that for the tropical forest zone, evaporation is the next important factor after radiation in the energy balance due to the humid conditions that usually prevail. Except for the few instances when very weak gradients exist, particularly of moisture, during transition periods (at sunrise or sunset), the technique has worked satisfactorily for day as well as night time periods regardless of prevailing weather conditions.

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