Acer truncatum (purpleblow maple) is a woody tree species that produces seeds with high levels of valuable fatty acids (especially nervonic acid). The species is admired as a landscape plant with high developmental prospects and scientific research value. The A. truncatum chloroplast genome has recently been reported; however, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is still unexplored.
We characterized the A. truncatum mitogenome, which was assembled using reads from PacBio and Illumina sequencing platforms, performed a comparative analysis against different species of Acer. The circular mitogenome of A. truncatum has a length of 791,052 bp, with a base composition of 27.11% A, 27.21% T, 22.79% G, and 22.89% C. The A. truncatum mitogenome contains 62 genes, including 35 protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. We also examined codon usage, sequence repeats, RNA editing and selective pressure in the A. truncatum mitogenome. To determine the evolutionary and taxonomic status of A. truncatum, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on the mitogenomes of A. truncatum and 25 other taxa. In addition, the gene migration from chloroplast and nuclear genomes to the mitogenome were analyzed. Finally, we developed a novel NAD1 intron indel marker for distinguishing several Acer species.
In this study, we assembled and annotated the mitogenome of A. truncatum, a woody oil-tree species producing nervonic acid. The results of our analyses provide comprehensive information on the A. truncatum mitogenome, which would facilitate evolutionary research and molecular barcoding in Acer.
Rhodeus cyanorostris Li, Liao & Arai, 2020 is a freshwater fish that is endemic to China and restricted to Chengdu City in Sichuan Province. This study is the first to sequence and characterize the complete mitochondrial genome of R. cyanorostris. The mitogenome of R. cyanorostris is 16580 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region (D-loop). The base composition of the sequence is 28.5% A, 27.6% C, 26.4% T, and 17.5% G, with a bias toward A+T. The genome structure, nucleotide composition, and codon usage of the mitogenome of R. cyanorostris are consistent with those of other species of Rhodeus. To verify the molecular phylogeny of the genus Rhodeus, we provide new insights to better understand the taxonomic status of R. cyanorostris. The phylogenetic trees present four major clades based on 19 mitogenomic sequences from 16 Rhodeus species. Rhodeus cyanorostris exhibits the closest phylogenetic relationship with R. pseudosericeus, R. amarus, and R. sericeus. This study discloses the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of R. cyanorostris for the first time and provides the most comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the genus Rhodeus based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences. The information obtained in this study will provide new insights for conservation, phylogenetic analysis, and evolutionary biology research.
Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis is an endemic species and mainly inhabiting in the northwestern plateau of China, which can transmit many zoonotic pathogens and cause great harm to animals. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of H. qinghaiensis was assembled through the Illumina HiSeq platform. The mitogenome was 14,533 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 3 noncoding regions (NCRs). The bias towards a high A+T content with 77.65% in mitogenome of H. qinghaiensis. The rearrangement of mitochondrial genes in H. qinghaiensis was consistent with other hard ticks. The phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenation of 13 PCGs from 65 tick mitogenomes showed that the H. qinghaiensis was clustered into a well-supported clade within the Haemaphysalis genus. This is the first complete mitogenome sequence of H. qinghaiensis, which provides a useful reference for understanding of the taxonomic and genetics of ticks.
In this paper, a complete mitochondrial genome of the critically endangered European mink Mustela lutreola L., 1761 is reported. The mitogenome was 16,504 bp in length and encoded the typical 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes, and harboured a putative control region. The A+T content of the entire genome was 60.06% (A > T > C > G), and the AT-skew and GC-skew were 0.093 and −0.308, respectively. The encoding-strand identity of genes and their order were consistent with a collinear gene order characteristic for vertebrate mitogenomes. The start codons of all protein-coding genes were the typical ATN. In eight cases, they were ended by complete stop codons, while five had incomplete termination codons (TA or T). All tRNAs had a typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNASer(AGC) and tRNALys, which lacked the DHU stem and had reduced DHU loop, respectively. Both rRNAs were capable of folding into complex secondary structures, containing unmatched base pairs. Eighty-one single nucleotide variants (substitutions and indels) were identified. Comparative interspecies analyses confirmed the close phylogenetic relationship of the European mink to the so-called ferret group, clustering the European polecat, the steppe polecat and the black-footed ferret. The obtained results are expected to provide useful molecular data, informing and supporting effective conservation measures to save M. lutreola.