The vaccine is still the best clinical measure for effective prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The vaccine-associated ocular adverse reactions should be noted in detail among the medical community. We reported twelve eyes of 9 patients presented at the Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from March to August 2021 with ocular complaints following COVID-19 vaccination. The main inclusion criterion was the development of ocular symptoms within 14 days after receiving a dose of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The mean (SD) age was 44.7 ± 16.5 years (range, 19–78 years), among which seven (77.8%) cases were women. The mean time of ocular adverse events was 7.1 days (range, 1–14 days) after receiving the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. One patient was diagnosed with choroiditis, 1 with uveitis, 4 with keratitis, 1 with scleritis, 1 with acute retinal necrosis, and 1 with iridocyclitis. Although the causal relationship between vaccines and ocular adverse events cannot be established from this case series report, physicians should pay attention to the ocular adverse reactions following the COVID-19 vaccine administration.
Background: This study aimed to evaluate clinical features and prognosis and therapy option of patients with different risk ranks based on antibody against the M-type phospholipase-A2-receptor (PLA2Rab) level in seropositive M-type phospholipase-A2-receptor (PLA2R)-associated membranous nephropathy (MN) in a large sample size, multi-center study.Method: Based on the unvalidated cut-off value of PLA2Rab above 150 RU/ml as one of the clinical criteria for high risk of progressive kidney function loss in MN according to 2020 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) draft guidelines recommendation, a total of 447 patients who received cyclophosphamide (CTX) or tacrolimus (TAC) combined with corticosteroids treatment for 12 months were divided into high titer (>150 RU/ml) group and non-high titer (20–150 RU/ml) group, which were subdivided into CTX subgroup and TAC subgroup. The overall cohort was classified into CTX group and TAC group as well. Clinical parameters levels and remission rates were recorded at 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. PLA2Rab was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Patients with high titer PLA2Rab were associated with more severe proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia compared to those with non-high titer antibody, accompanied by lower complete remission (CR) and total remission (TR) rates at 3, 6, and 12 months, which even took longer to remission. Similar remission rates differences between the two titer groups were observed in the CTX and TAC groups, respectively. PLA2Rab level at baseline was an independent predictive factor for CR and TR. In the high titer group, CR and TR rates in the CTX subgroup were significantly higher than those in the TAC subgroup at 12 months, although serious adverse events were more frequent in the former.Conclusion: High-risk rank patients with PLA2Rab level above 150 RU/ml have higher disease activity and worse prognosis among patients with seropositive PLA2R-associated MN, even under different immunosuppressive therapeutic models; moreover, CTX combined with corticosteroids was preferred compared to TAC plus corticosteroids, although serious adverse events were more frequent in the former. Additionally, baseline PLA2Rab level was an independent predictive factor for clinical remission.
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has affected countries around the world. The introduction of COVID-19 vaccines has proved the most effective arsenal in the fight against the disease. However, with the vaccination of billions of people, data on vaccine-induced adverse reactions are also emerging. We report a 32-year-old woman who manifested papulopustular rash 7 days after receiving Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine. The patient responded to a short course of systemic steroids and antihistamines. Awareness regarding the possible adverse events that can be anticipated after the COVID-19 vaccination may help the healthcare professionals to offer prompt and effective care to the affected.
Endoscopic biliary stent insertion is a well-established procedure that is indispensable in the management of various benign and malignant biliary disorders, and one that helps prevent mortality related to invasive surgical procedures. We report a rare case of the distal migration of a biliary stent outside the abdomen to the pericardium, inducing constrictive pericarditis and septic shock. This case alerts clinicians to be aware of potential adverse events that can lead to unfavorable patient outcomes. Such adverse events can be effectively avoided through early detection and intervention.
The Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is characterized by life-threatening thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. This study compared the efficacy and safety of sirolimus plus prednisolone versus sirolimus monotherapy as treatment strategies for KHE with KMP in the largest cohort to date. Participants were randomized to receive either sirolimus in combination with a short course of prednisolone or sirolimus monotherapy for at least 12 months. The primary outcome was defined as achievement of a durable platelet response (platelet count >100×109/L) at week 4. Participants completed efficacy assessments 2 years after the initial treatment. At week 4, a durable platelet response was achieved by 35 of 37 patients given sirolimus and prednisolone compared with 24 of 36 patients given sirolimus monotherapy (difference 27.9%; 95% CI, 10.0% to 44.7%). Compared with the sirolimus monotherapy group, the combination treatment group showed improvements in terms of measures of durable platelet responses at all points during the initial 3-week treatment period, median platelet counts during weeks 1 to 4, increased numbers of patients achieving fibrinogen stabilization at week 4, and objective lesion responses at month 12. Patients receiving combination therapy had fewer blood transfusions and a lower total incidence of disease sequelae than patients receiving sirolimus alone. The frequencies of total adverse events and grade 3-4 adverse events during treatment were similar in both groups. The responses seen in patients with KHE with KMP were profound and encouraging, suggesting that sirolimus plus prednisolone should be considered a valid treatment for KHE with KMP. ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT03188068
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) versus standard-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SD-IMRT) in the treatment of locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
From July 2003 to March 2014, 1748 patients in a single center who received definitive chemoradiotherapy were included in the analysis. A total of 109 patients who underwent SIB-IMRT and fulfilled all inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified as the study group. A total of 266 patients who underwent SD-IMRT (60 Gy/30 fractions, 2 Gy/fraction, 1 time/day, 5 times/week) during the same period were selected as the control group. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance the baseline characteristics. Survival status, treatment failure mode, and the occurrence of adverse events were compared between the two groups.
There were more women and more cervical and upper thoracic cancers (P = 0.038, < 0.001, respectively) in the SIB-IMRT group before case matching. The median progression-free survival (PFS) in the SD-IMRT and SIB-IMRT groups was 22 and 19 months, respectively, and the median overall survival duration was 24 and 22 months, respectively, with χ2 = 0.244 and P = 0.621. After PSM of 1:1, 138 patients entered the final analysis (69 cases from each group). The median PFS of the SD-IMRT group and the SIB-IMRT group was 13 and 18 months, respectively, with χ2 = 8.776 and P = 0.003. The 1‑, 3‑, and 5‑year overall survival rates were 66.7, 21.7, and 8.7% and 65.2, 36.2, and 27.3%, respectively, and the median overall survival duration was 16 and 22 months, respectively, with χ2 = 5.362 and P = 0.021. Treatment failure mode: 5‑year local regional recurrence rates of SD-IMRT and SIB-IMRT were 50.7 and 36.2%, respectively, with χ2 = 2.949 and P = 0.086. The 5‑year distant metastasis rates of the two groups were 36.2 and 24.6%, respectively, with χ2 = 2.190 and P = 0.139. Adverse events: 3 patients experienced grade 4–5 toxicity (2.2%), including one case of grade 4 radiation esophagitis and two cases of grade 5 radiation pneumonitis, all in the SD-IMRT group; 14 patients experienced grade 3 adverse events (10.1%), primarily including radiation esophagitis, radiation pneumonitis, and hematological toxicity.
The technique of SIB-IMRT was safe and reliable compared with SD-IMRT. In addition, SIB-IMRT had locoregional control advantages and potential survival benefits.
Dronabinol, a natural cannabinoid, and its semi-synthetic derivative, nabilone, are marketed as medicines in several countries. The aim of our work was to systematically evaluate the frequency of adverse events related to dronabinol or nabilone treatment compared to placebo. Scientific databases were searched for placebo-controlled clinical studies of patients receiving either dronabinol or nabilone therapy with placebo control groups. This meta-analysis was reported following the PRISMA guidelines using the PICO format, and it was registered with the PROSPERO register. There were 16 trials included in the meta-analysis. In the nabilone studies, drowsiness was more than 7 times as frequent in patients treated with nabilone than in the placebo group (OR: 7.25; 95% CI: 1.64–31.95), and the risk of dizziness (OR: 21.14; 95% CI: 2.92–152.75) and dry mouth was also higher (OR: 17.23; 95% CI: 4.33–68.55). The frequency of headache was not different in the two groups. In case of dronabinol, the frequency of dry mouth (OR: 5.58; 95% CI: 3.19–9.78), dizziness (OR: 4.60 95% CI: 2.39–8.83) and headache (OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.07–7.85) was significantly higher in the dronabinol groups, whereas in case of nausea, drowsiness and fatigue there was no difference. The severity of adverse events was typically mild-to-moderate and transient. In a risk-benefit assessment, these adverse effects are acceptable compared to the achievable benefit. However, considering the diversity of the adverse effects, more studies are needed to provide a more accurate assessment on the side effect profiles of these two compounds.
Background: The Phase III clinical trial of the non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone (BAY 94-8862) has been completed, aiming to investigate renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in type 2 diabetes (T2D) with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the efficacy and safety of finerenone in renal function remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of finerenone in treating the patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Methods: Databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on patients with DKD receiving finerenone treatment from inception to September 2021. Data including patient characteristics and interested outcomes were extracted, and the dichotomous data and continuous variables were evaluated using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs, respectively. Results: A total of 4 RCTs involving 13945 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis results demonstrated that patients receiving finerenone showed a significant decrease in changing urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) from baseline (MD: ﹣0.30; 95%CI [﹣0.33, ﹣0.27] P=0.46, I2=0%) (P＜0.05). The number of patients with ≥40% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline in the finerenone group was significantly smaller than that in the placebo group (RR: 0.85; 95%CI [0.78, 0.93] P=0.60, I2=0%) (P＜0.05). No difference was found in adverse events between the finerenone and placebo groups (RR: 1.00; 95%CI [0.98, 1.01] P = 0.94, I2=0%) (P=0.65). The incidence of hyperkalemia was higher in the finerenone group than that in the placebo group (RR: 2.03; 95%CI [1.83, 2.26] P = 0.95, I2=0%) (P＜0.05). Conclusion: Finerenone contributes to the reduction of UACR and can ameliorate the deterioration of renal function in patients with T2D and CKD. The higher risk of hyperkalemia was found in the finerenone group compared with placebo, however, there was no difference in the risk of overall adverse events.
It has been less than a decade since immune checkpoint inhibitors became the mainstay of lung cancer treatment, and 2020 saw the advent of the era of complex immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although clinical trials have shown that the therapeutic effects of complex immune checkpoint inhibitors are favorable, they are associated with an increase in adverse events. The use of combined immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical practice has progressed slowly, and the frequency and types of adverse events they cause remain unclear. Here we report the adverse events of six patients with lung cancer treated with regimens containing nivolumab and ipilimumab in 2021. Four of the six patients had grade 3 or higher adverse events, including one patient with lung injury and one patient with skin injury, both of whom died. The timing and nature of the adverse events were difficult to predict.