stochastic neural networks
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Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (10) ◽  
pp. 1280
Felix Biggs ◽  
Benjamin Guedj

We make two related contributions motivated by the challenge of training stochastic neural networks, particularly in a PAC–Bayesian setting: (1) we show how averaging over an ensemble of stochastic neural networks enables a new class of partially-aggregated estimators, proving that these lead to unbiased lower-variance output and gradient estimators; (2) we reformulate a PAC–Bayesian bound for signed-output networks to derive in combination with the above a directly optimisable, differentiable objective and a generalisation guarantee, without using a surrogate loss or loosening the bound. We show empirically that this leads to competitive generalisation guarantees and compares favourably to other methods for training such networks. Finally, we note that the above leads to a simpler PAC–Bayesian training scheme for sign-activation networks than previous work.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (1) ◽  
Lihua Dai ◽  
Yuanyuan Hou

AbstractIn this paper, we first consider the stability problem for a class of stochastic quaternion-valued neural networks with time-varying delays. Next, we cannot explicitly decompose the quaternion-valued systems into equivalent real-valued systems; by using Lyapunov functional and stochastic analysis techniques, we can obtain sufficient conditions for mean-square exponential input-to-state stability of the quaternion-valued stochastic neural networks. Our results are completely new. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the feasibility of our results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Min Cao ◽  
Xun-Wu Yin ◽  
Wen-He Song ◽  
Xue-Mei Sun ◽  
Cheng-Dong Yang ◽  

In this paper, we devote to the investigation of passivity in two types of coupled stochastic neural networks (CSNNs) with multiweights and incompatible input and output dimensions. First, some new definitions of passivity are proposed for stochastic systems that may have incompatible input and output dimensions. By utilizing stochastic analysis techniques and Lyapunov functional method, several sufficient conditions are respectively developed for ensuring that CSNNs without and with multiple delay couplings can realize passivity. Besides, the synchronization criteria for CSNNs with multiweights are established by employing the results of output-strictly passivity. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the validity of the theoretical results.

2021 ◽  
Sorena Sarmadi ◽  
James J. Winkle ◽  
Razan N. Alnahhas ◽  
Matthew R. Bennett ◽  
Krešimir Josić ◽  

AbstractWe describe an automated analysis method to quantify the detailed growth dynamics of a population of bacilliform bacteria. We propose an innovative approach to frame-sequence tracking of deformable-cell motion by the automated minimization of a new, specific cost functional. This minimization is implemented by dedicated Boltzmann machines (stochastic recurrent neural networks). Automated detection of cell divisions is handled similarly by successive minimizations of two cost functions, alternating the identification of children pairs and parent identification. We validate this automatic cell tracking algorithm using recordings of simulated cell colonies that closely mimic the growth dynamics of E. coli in microfluidic traps. On a batch of 1100 image frames, cell registration accuracies per frame ranged from 94.5% to 100%, with a high average. Our initial tests using experimental image sequences of E. coli colonies also yield convincing results, with a registration accuracy ranging from 90% to 100%.

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