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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
F. Awan ◽  
M. M. Ali ◽  
I. Q. Afridi ◽  
S. Kalsoom ◽  
S. Firyal ◽  

Abstract The present study involves the chemical and bacteriological analysis of water from different sources i.e., bore, wells, bottle, and tap, from Peshawar, Mardan, Swat and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. From each district, 50 water samples (10 samples from each source), regardless of urban and rural status, were collected from these sources and analysed for sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides, total soluble solids and coliforms (E. coli). Results indicated that majority of the water sources had unacceptable E. coli count i.e.> 34 CFU/100mL. E. coli positive samples were high in Mardan District, followed by Kohat, Swat and Peshawar district. Besides this, the some water sources were also chemically contaminated by different inorganic fertilizers (nitrates/nitrites of sodium, potassium) but under safe levels whereas agricultural and industrial wastes (chloride and sulphate compounds) were in unsafe range. Among all districts, the water quality was found comparatively more deteriorated in Kohat and Mardan districts than Peshawar and Swat districts. Such chemically and bacteriologically unfit water sources for drinking and can cause human health problems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Fernando Bracalente ◽  
Martín Sabatini ◽  
Ana Arabolaza ◽  
Hugo Gramajo

Abstract Background A broad diversity of natural and non-natural esters have now been made in bacteria, and in other microorganisms, as a result of original metabolic engineering approaches. However, the fact that the properties of these molecules, and therefore their applications, are largely defined by the structural features of the fatty acid and alcohol moieties, has driven a persistent interest in generating novel structures of these chemicals. Results In this research, we engineered Escherichia coli to synthesize de novo esters composed of multi-methyl-branched-chain fatty acids and short branched-chain alcohols (BCA), from glucose and propionate. A coculture engineering strategy was developed to avoid metabolic burden generated by the reconstitution of long heterologous biosynthetic pathways. The cocultures were composed of two independently optimized E. coli strains, one dedicated to efficiently achieve the biosynthesis and release of the BCA, and the other to synthesize the multi methyl-branched fatty acid and the corresponding multi-methyl-branched esters (MBE) as the final products. Response surface methodology, a cost-efficient multivariate statistical technique, was used to empirical model the BCA-derived MBE production landscape of the coculture and to optimize its productivity. Compared with the monoculture strategy, the utilization of the designed coculture improved the BCA-derived MBE production in 45%. Finally, the coculture was scaled up in a high-cell density fed-batch fermentation in a 2 L bioreactor by fine-tuning the inoculation ratio between the two engineered E. coli strains. Conclusion Previous work revealed that esters containing multiple methyl branches in their molecule present favorable physicochemical properties which are superior to those of linear esters. Here, we have successfully engineered an E. coli strain to broaden the diversity of these molecules by incorporating methyl branches also in the alcohol moiety. The limited production of these esters by a monoculture was considerable improved by a design of a coculture system and its optimization using response surface methodology. The possibility to scale-up this process was confirmed in high-cell density fed-batch fermentations.

Legese Chelkeba ◽  
Korinan Fanta ◽  
Temesgen Mulugeta ◽  
Tsegaye Melaku

Abstract Background Globally, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) restricted the armamentarium of the health care providers against infectious diseases, mainly due to the emergence of multidrug resistant. This review is aimed at providing contemporary bacterial profile and antimicrobial resistance pattern among pregnant women with significant bacteriuria. Methods Electronic biomedical databases and indexing services such as PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE and Google Scholar were searched. Original records of research articles, available online from 2008 to 2021, addressing the prevalence of significant bacteriuria and AMR pattern among pregnant women and written in English were identified and screened. The relevant data were extracted from included studies using a format prepared in Microsoft Excel and exported to STATA 14.0 software for the outcome measure analyses and subgrouping. Results The data of 5894 urine samples from 20 included studies conducted in 8 regions of the country were pooled. The overall pooled estimate of bacteriuria was 15% (95% CI 13–17%, I2 = 77.94%, p < 0.001) with substantial heterogeneity. The pooled estimate of Escherichia coli recovered from isolates of 896 urine samples was 41% (95% CI 38–45%) followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococci, 22% (95% CI 18–26%), Staphylococcus aureus, 15% (95% CI 12–18%), Staphylococcus saprophytic, 12% (95% CI 6–18%) Proteus mirabilis, 7% (95% CI 4–10%), Enterococcus species, 6% (0–12%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4% (2–6%), Citrobacter species, 4% (95% CI 2–4%), Group B streptococcus, 3% (1–5%), and Enterobacter species, 2% (1–4%). Multidrug resistance proportions of E. coli, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative staphylococci, 83% (95% CI 76–91%), 78% (95% CI 66–90%), 89% (95% CI 83–96%), and 78% (95% CI 67–88%), respectively. Conclusion The result of current review revealed the occurrence of substantial bacteriuria among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Resistance among common bacteria (E. coli, Klebsiella species, Staphylococci species) causing UTIs in pregnant women is widespread to commonly used antibiotics. The high rate of drug resistance in turn warrants the need for regular epidemiological surveillance of antibiotic resistance and implementation of an efficient infection control and stewardship program.

2022 ◽  
Vol 116 (1) ◽  
pp. 61-64
Petr Holý ◽  
Eva Benešová

The treatment of waste PET bottles has become a pressing global issue over the last few decades, and many scientific teams are currently working on solutions to it. There are many different approaches of how to solve this problem. The present article outlines the possibility to process terephthalic acid, which is the hydrolysis product of polyethylene terephthalate, into vanillin, a compound widely used in the food industry. The work of British scientists who have succeeded in using genetic modification to produce a strain of E. coli RARE_pVanX capable of processing polyethylene terephthalate hydrolysates to the desired vanillin is presented in a broader context.

Amal Ali Bahakim ◽  
Eidha Ali Bin-Hameed

Background and Objectives: Bacteria that attach to the surfaces and produce polymeric matrix resulting in the biofilms formation are involved in a wider range of human infections. Biofilms forming Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are considered to be highly antibiotics resistant. This study aimed to analysis the antibiogram profile of biofilm forming S. aureus and E. coli in Mukalla city, Hadhramaut,Yemen. Methods: Sixty clinical isolates of S. aureus and E. coli were isolated from different clinical samples, and identified by standard bacteriological methods, then subjected to biofilm formation detection by tissue culture plate (TCP) method. The antibiotics susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data and p value< 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Among the total isolates S. aureus and E. coli, TCP method detected 55% of isolates as strong, 25% as moderate and 25% as weak/non-biofilm producers. Biofilm forming of S. aureus developed significantly higher degrees of antibiotic resistance of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid100%, ceftazidime 95.8%, cefotaxime62.5%, cefadroxil 45.8%, ciprofloxacin 41.7% and ceftriaxone 25% with significant statistics correlation the resistance of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ceftazidime and bacterial biofilm production (p-value< 0.05). The rates of antibiotics resistance biofilm E. coli were 100%, 91.7%, 75%, 70.8%, 66.7%, 62.5% and 33.3%for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefadroxil, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole respectively with statistically significant correlation of cefadroxil resistance (p-value < 0.05). Conclusion: TCP method showed that S. aureus and E. coli isolates have high degree of biofilm forming ability. A high antibiotics resistance found in biofilm producers isolates than non-biofilm producers.                     Peer Review History: Received: 23 October 2021; Revised: 1 December; Accepted: 17 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Nuray Arı, Ankara University, Turkiye, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.0/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. Wadhah Hassan Ali Edrees, Hajja University, Yemen, [email protected] Dr. Tamer Elhabibi, Suez Canal University, Egypt, [email protected] Dr. Rawaa Souhil Al-Kayali, Aleppo University, Syria, [email protected] Rola Jadallah, Arab American University, Palestine, [email protected] Similar Articles: PREVALENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN DENTAL INFECTIONS AND THE OCCURRENCE OF MRSA IN ISOLATES PREVALENCE OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA) AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS AT A PRIVATE HOSPITAL IN SANA'A, YEMEN

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Akihisa Hata ◽  
Noboru Fujitani ◽  
Fumiko Ono ◽  
Yasuhiro Yoshikawa

AbstractThere is a lack of an established antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance system in animal welfare centers. Therefore, the AMR prevalence in shelter dogs is rarely known. Herein, we conducted a survey in animal shelters in Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures, in the Kanto Region, Japan, to ascertain the AMR status of Escherichia coli  (E. coli) prevalent in shelter dogs. E. coli was detected in the fecal samples of all 61 and 77 shelter dogs tested in Chiba and Kanagawa, respectively. The AMR was tested against 20 antibiotics. E. coli isolates derived from 16.4% and 26.0% of samples from Chiba and Kanagawa exhibited resistance to at least one antibiotic, respectively. E. coli in samples from Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures were commonly resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid; that from the Kanagawa Prefecture to cefazolin, cefotaxime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin and that from Chiba Prefecture to chloramphenicol and imipenem. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected in 18 dogs from both regions; β-lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaDHA-1, blaCTX-M-9 group CTX-M-14), quinolone-resistance protein genes (qnrB and qnrS), and mutations in quinolone-resistance-determining regions (gyrA and parC) were detected. These results could partially represent the AMR data in shelter dogs in the Kanto Region of Japan.

2022 ◽  

Abstract Background This study was carried out to monitor the levels of faecal pollution markers in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and their growing waters in selected earthen and concrete ponds. Water and catfish samples were collected weekly in the months of February, March, April, May, June and July, 2019. The concentrations of enteric bacteria in the water and catfish samples were determined using membrane filtration and pour plate methods, respectively. The rate of bioaccumulation of faecal indicator bacteria was obtained by dividing the log concentration of each organism in catfish by the corresponding log concentration in the growing waters. Result The concentration of faecal coliforms in catfish samples from concrete and earthen ponds ranged from 1.41 to 2.28 log10 CFU/100 ml and 1.3 to 2.47 log10 CFU/100 ml respectively and in growing waters from the concrete and earthen ponds; 1.43 to 2.41 log10 CFU/100 ml and 1.50 to 2.80 log10 CFU/100 ml respectively. Faecal coliforms exhibited positive relationships with alkalinity in water samples from the earthen (r = 0.61) and concrete ponds (r = 0.62). Salmonella and faecal coliforms had the highest and least bioaccumulation in catfish raised in earthen pond, respectively, whereas Salmonella and enterococci had the highest and least bioaccumulation in catfish raised in concrete pond, respectively. Faecal coliforms and E. coli had the highest and least counts in water samples from the earthen pond during the dry and wet months, Salmonella and E. coli had the highest and least counts in water samples from the concrete pond during the dry and wet months. Conclusion There were high levels of bacterial faecal pollution markers in water and C. gariepinus from the earthen and concrete ponds. Physicochemical characteristics of the water and seasonality played major roles in the rate of bioaccumulation of the faecal pollution markers in C. gariepinus raised in the earthen and concrete ponds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
George M. Ongwae ◽  
Mahendra D. Chordia ◽  
Jennie L. Cawley ◽  
Brianna E. Dalesandro ◽  
Nathan J. Wittenberg ◽  

AbstractBacteriophages are highly abundant molecular machines that have evolved proteins to target the surface of host bacterial cells. Given the ubiquity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, we reasoned that targeting proteins from bacteriophages could be leveraged to target the surface of Gram-negative pathogens for biotechnological applications. To this end, a short tail fiber (GP12) from the T4 bacteriophage, which infects Escherichia coli (E. coli), was isolated and tested for the ability to adhere to whole bacterial cells. We found that, surprisingly, GP12 effectively bound the surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells despite the established preferred host of T4 for E. coli. In efforts to elucidate why this binding pattern was observed, it was determined that the absence of the O-antigen region of LPS on E. coli improved cell surface tagging. This indicated that O-antigens play a significant role in controlling cell adhesion by T4. Probing GP12 and LPS interactions further using deletions of the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of LPS revealed the inner core oligosaccharide as a possible main target of GP12. Finally, we demonstrated the potential utility of GP12 for biomedical applications by showing that GP12-modified agarose beads resulted in the depletion of pathogenic bacteria from solution.

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