Mean Square
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 317-328
Hamzeh Agahi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus satellite images presents an important data source for many applications related to remote sensing. An effective image restoration method is proposed to fill the missing information in the satellite images. The segmentation of satellite images to find the SLIC Super pixels and then to find the image Segments. The Boundary Reconstruction is performed using Edge Matching to find the area of the missing region. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio and Root Mean Square Error using with boundary reconstruction and without boundary reconstruction to evaluate the quality and the error rate of the satellite images. The results show the capability to predict the missing values accurately in terms of quality, time without need of external information.The values for PSNR has changed from 25 to 90 and RMSE has changed from 180 to 4 in Red Channel of an image.This indicates that quality of the image is high and error rate is less.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 2866
Rebeca Pérez-González ◽  
Xavier Sòria-Perpinyà ◽  
Juan Miguel Soria ◽  
Jesús Delegido ◽  
Patricia Urrego ◽  

Remote sensing is an appropriate tool for water management. It allows the study of some of the main sources of pollution, such as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. These species are increasing due to eutrophication and the adverse effects of climate change. This leads to water quality loss, which has a major impact on the environment, including human water supplies, which consequently require more expensive purification processes. The application of satellite remote sensing images as bio-optical tools is an effective way to monitor and control phycocyanin concentrations, which indicate the presence of cyanobacteria. For this study, 90 geo-referenced phycocyanin measurements were performed in situ, using a Turner C3 Submersible Fluorometer and a laboratory spectrofluorometer, both calibrated with phycocyanin standard, in water bodies of the Iberian Peninsula. These samples were synchronized with Sentinel-2 satellite orbit. The images were processed using Sentinel Application Program software and corrected with the Case 2 Regional Coast color-extended atmospheric correction tool. To produce algorithms that would help to obtain the phycocyanin concentration from the reflectance measured by the multispectral instrument sensor of the satellite, the following band combinations were tested, among others: band 665 nm, band 705 nm, and band 740 nm. The samples were equally divided: half were used for the algorithm’s calibration, and the other half for its validation. With the best adjustment, the algorithm was made more robust and accurate through a recalculation, obtaining a determination coefficient of 0.7, a Root Mean Square Error of 8.1 µg L−1, and a Relative Root Mean Square Error of 19%. In several reservoirs, we observed alarming phycocyanin concentrations that may trigger many environmental health problems, as established by the World Health Organization. Remote sensing provides a rapid monitoring method for the temporal and spatial distribution of these cyanobacteria blooms to ensure good preventive management and control, in order to improve the environmental quality of inland waters.

Aamir Raza ◽  
Muhammad Noor-ul-Amin

The estimation of population mean is not meaningful using ordinary least square method when data contains some outliers. In the current study, we proposed efficient estimators of population mean using robust regression in two phase sampling. An extensive simulation study is conduct to examine the efficiency of proposed estimators in terms of mean square error (MSE). Real life example and extensive simulation study are cited to demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimators. Theoretical example and simulation studies showed that the suggested estimators are more efficient than the considered estimators in the presence of outliers.

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 2875
Yuanyuan Wen ◽  
Jun Zhao ◽  
Guofeng Zhu ◽  
Ri Xu ◽  
Jianxia Yang

Passive microwave surface soil moisture (SSM) products tend to have very low resolution, which massively limits their application and validation in regional or local-scale areas. Many climate and hydrological studies are urgently needed to evaluate the suitability of satellite SSM products, especially in alpine mountain areas where soil moisture plays a key role in terrestrial atmospheric exchanges. Aiming to overcome this limitation, a downscaling method based on random forest (RF) was proposed to disaggregate satellite SSM products. We compared the ability of the downscaled soil moisture active passive (SMAP) SSM and soil moisture and ocean salinity satellite (SMOS) SSM products to capture soil moisture information in upstream of the Heihe River Basin by using in situ measurements, the triple collocation (TC) method and temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI). The results showed that the RF downscaling method has strong applicability in the study area, and the downscaled results of the two products after residual correction have more details, which can better represent the spatial distribution of soil moisture. The validation with the in situ SSM measurements indicates that the correlation between downscaled SMAP and in situ SSM is better than downscaled SMOS at both point and watershed scales in the Babaohe River Basin. From the TC method, the root mean square error (RMSE) of the CLDAS (CMA land data assimilation system), downscaled SMAP and downscaled SMOS were 0.0265, 0.0255 and 0.0317, respectively, indicating that the downscaled SMAP has smaller errors in the study area than others. However, the soil moisture distribution in the study area shown by the SMOS downscaled results is closer than the downscaled SMAP to the degree of drought reflected by TVDI. Overall, this study suggests that the proposed RF-based downscaling method can capture the variation of SSM well, and the downscaled SMAP products perform significantly better than the downscaled SMOS products after the accuracy verification and error analysis of the downscaled results, and it should be helpful to facilitate applications for satellite SSM products at small scales.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (10) ◽  
pp. 689
Muhamad Afdal Ahmad Basri ◽  
Shazlyn Milleana Shaharudin ◽  
Kismiantini ◽  
Mou Leong Tan ◽  
Sumayyah Aimi Mohd Najib ◽  

Monthly precipitation data during the period of 1970 to 2019 obtained from the Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysical Agency database were used to analyze regionalized precipitation regimes in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. There were missing values in 52.6% of the data, which were handled by a hybrid random forest approach and bootstrap method (RF-Bs). The present approach addresses large missing values and also reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) in the search for the optimum minimal value. Cluster analysis was used to classify stations or grid points into different rainfall regimes. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) of rainfall data reveal the pattern of behavior of the rainfall regime in a specific region by identifying homogeneous clusters. According to the HCA, four distinct and homogenous regions were recognized. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) technique was used to homogenize the rainfall series and optimally reduce the long-term rainfall records into a few variables. Moreover, PCA was applied to monthly rainfall data in order to validate the results of the HCA analysis. On the basis of the 75% of cumulative variation, 14 factors for the Dry season and the Rainy season, and 12 factors for the Inter-monsoon season, were extracted among the components using varimax rotation. Consideration of different groupings into these approaches opens up new advanced early warning systems in developing recommendations on how to differentiate climate change adaptation- and mitigation-related policies in order to minimize the largest economic damage and taking necessary precautions when multiple hazard events occur.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1242
Keyang Liu ◽  
Hongyang Li ◽  
Xinliang Wang ◽  
Yanqi Liu ◽  
Liwei Song ◽  

We report on the long-term correction of a timing fluctuation between the femtosecond regenerative amplifier and the reference oscillator for the seed 100 PW laser system in the Station of Extreme Light (SEL). The timing fluctuation was characterized by a noncollinear balanced optical cross-correlator that maps the time difference to the sum frequency intensity of the amplifier and oscillator laser pulses. A feedback loop was employed to correct the timing jitter by adjusting the time delay line in the amplifier beam path. The timing fluctuation was reduced to 1.26 fs root-mean-square from hundreds of fs over 10 hours. Benefitting from excellent performance and long-term stability, this timing jitter correction scheme, as a component of optical synchronization in the 100 PW laser facility, will be integrated into SEL.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 2496
Wanru Hu ◽  
Zhugang Wang ◽  
Ruru Mei ◽  
Meiyan Lin

This paper proposes a simple and robust variable modulation-decision-directed least mean square (VM-DDLMS) algorithm for reducing the complexity of conventional equalization algorithms and improving the stability of variable modulation (VM) systems. Compared to conventional adaptive equalization algorithms, known information was used as training sequences to reduce the bandwidth consumption caused by inserting training sequences; compared with conventional blind equalization algorithms, the parameters and decisions of the equalizer were determinate, which was conducive to a stable equalization performance. The simulation and implementation results show that the proposed algorithm has a better bit error rate (BER) performance than that of the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and modified constant modulus algorithm (MCMA) while maintaining the same level of consumption of hardware resources. Compared to the conventional decision-directed least mean square (DDLMS) algorithm, the proposed algorithm only needs to make quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) symbol decisions, which reduces the computational complexity. In parallel 11th-order equalization algorithms, the operating frequency of VM-DDLMS can reach up to 333.33 MHz.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (20) ◽  
pp. 2571
A. M. A. El-Sayed ◽  
Hoda A. Fouad

The fractional stochastic differential equations had many applications in interpreting many events and phenomena of life, and the nonlocal conditions describe numerous problems in physics and finance. Here, we are concerned with the combination between the three senses of derivatives, the stochastic Ito^-differential and the fractional and integer orders derivative for the second order stochastic process in two nonlocal problems of a coupled system of two random and stochastic differential equations with two nonlocal stochastic and random integral conditions and a coupled system of two stochastic and random integral conditions. We study the existence of mean square continuous solutions of these two nonlocal problems by using the Schauder fixed point theorem. We discuss the sufficient conditions and the continuous dependence for the unique solution.

Angel-Ivan Garcia-Moreno

Abstract The digitization of geographic environments, such as cities and archaeological sites, is of priority interest to the scientific community due to its potential applications. But there are still several issues to address. There are various digitization strategies, which include terrestrial/ airborne platforms and composed of various sensors, among the most common, cameras and laser scanners. A comprehensive methodology is presented to reconstruct urban environments using a mobile land platform. All the implemented stages are described, which includes the acquisition, processing, and correlation of the data delivered by a Velodyne HDL-64E scanner, a spherical camera, GPS, and inertial systems. The process to merge several point clouds to build a large-scale map is described, as well as the generation of surfaces. Being able to render large urban areas using a low density of points but without losing the details of the structures within the urban scenes. The proposal is evaluated using several metrics, for example, Coverage and Root-Mean-Square-Error (RSME). The results are compared against 3 methodologies reported in the literature. Obtaining better results in the 2D/3D data fusion process and the generation of surfaces. The described method has a low RMSE (0.79) compared to the other methods and a runtime of approximately 40 seconds to process each data set (point cloud, panoramic image, and inertial data). In general, the proposed methodology shows a more homogeneous density distribution without losing the details, that is, it conserves the spatial distribution of the points, but with fewer data.

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